Basic Concepts Work Safety And Health

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Background
Occupational safety and health difilosofikan as a thought and effort to ensure the integrity and perfection of both physical and spiritual labor in particular and mankind in general, and cultural work towards a prosperous and prosperous society. While understanding the science is a science and its application in udaha prevent the possibility of accidents and illness due to work. Occupational health and safety (K3) can not be separated with both production processes and industrial services. Of development after Indonesia's independence led to the consequences of increasing the intensity of work also resulted in increased risk of accidents in the workplace. It would also result in increased demand for higher prevent accidents in the various forms and types of accident. Accordingly, the development progress is then implemented Law No. 14 of 1969 the main frame of the next labor changes to Law No. 12 of 2003 on labor.
In article 86 of Law No. 13 in 2003, stated that any work or labor has the right to the protection of occupational health and safety, morals and ethics and treatment in accordance with the dignity and religious values.

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A. Prevention is the most effective
Two of the biggest things is the cause of working kecelakanaan namely unsafe behaviors and environmental conditions are not safe, according to data from the Bureau of Manpower Training, the cause of the accident had occurred so far are caused by unsafe behavior as follows:
1. Careless and imprudent
2. Does not comply with peratutan
3. Did not follow standard work procedures
4. Do not use self protection devices
5. The condition of weak entity
The percentage of occupational accidents causing 3% due to the cause can not be avoided (such as natural disasters), but it was 24% due to environmental or equipment that do not qualify and 73% due to unsafe behavior. Effective way to prevent accidents is to avoid the occurrence of five unsafe behavior mentioned above.

B. Type of Accident In Some Industrial Sector
Manufacturing (including electronics, metal production, etc.)
1. Squeezed, oppressed
2. Cut, cut
3. Fall slip
4. Improper act
5. Hit
6. Contact with hazardous wok
7. Fell, rolled
8. Fall of goods from the
9. Strong impact
10. Affected goods collapsed, collapse
Electronics (Manufacturing)
1. Cut, cut
2. Crushed, run over
3. Contact with chemicals
4. Gas leak
5. The decreasing of the hearing, eyesight

Metal Production (Manufacturing)
1. Squeezed, crushed
2. Punctured, cut, cut
3. Fall, slip

Petrochemical (oil and coal production, rubber production, rubber production, plastics production)
1. Squeezed, crushed
2. Cut, cut, cut
3. Fall slip
4. Improper act
5. Hit
6. Strong impact

Construction
1. Fall slip
2. Fall of goods from the
3. Stepped
4. Affected goods collapsed, collapse
5. Exposed to hot temperatures, cold temperatures
6. Fall, tumble
7. Squeezed, crushed
8. Hit
9. Improper act
10. Strong impact
Production of transportation equipment repair field
1. Squeezed, oppressed
2. Punctured, cut, cut
3. Blast

C. Education Safety and Health
The goal of education health and safety is to prevent the accident, an effective way to prevent accidents is taking appropriate measures for labor and equipment, so that workers have the concept of occupational health and safety to prevent accidents.
Destination occupational health and safety to protect health workers, improve working efficiency, prevent the occurrence of occupational accidents and diseases.
Various safety and health at work
1. Anticipating the existence of the factors causing the danger and to take reasonable precautions before.
2. Understanding the types of hazards in the workplace.
3. Evaluating the level of danger in the workplace.
4. Controlling the occurrence of danger or complications.

Regulations concerning safety and health of workers who primarily safety and health law labor law and the detailed implementation of safety and health of workers.
Factors that cause common hazardous
1. Types of chemical hazards: inhalation or skin of contact between the liquid metal, liquid non-metal, hydrocarbons and ash, gas, steam steam, smoke and poisonous dew.
2. Hazards of physics: an environment hot and cold temperature, environment radiating ionizing and non ionizing, noise, vibration and air pressure is not normal.
3. Human danger because of the project: lighting and lighting that is less, the danger of transport, and the danger posed by the equipment.

How to control the threat of health hazards
1. Control techniques: changing work procedures, closing isolating hazardous materials, using automation work, using wet workings and ventilation air changes.
2. Administrative control: reducing the exposure time, arrange health and safety rules, wearing protective equipment, installing warning signs, make a list of materials data is safe, doing emergency training penangganan system.
3. Monitoring health: health checks

Why it is necessary to health and safety education work?
According to H. W. Heinrich, cause of work accidents are common unsafe behavior of 88%, environmental conditions are not safe for 10%, or both of the above occur simultaneously. Therefore, the implementation of safety training and health workers can prevent unsafe behavior and improve the environmental conditions are not safe.
For training purposes workforce have the knowledge and ability to prevent occupational accidents, developed the concept and habit of the importance of safety and health, to understand that there are dangers in the workplace and uses workplace accident prevention measures. Regulations that need to be obeyed Act Occupational Safety and Health arranged for labor, worker health and safety and training managers must follow safety and health. Object of education and training of work safety and health:
1. Officer safety and health
2. The manager of the operational safety and health
3. Machine operators and equipment is dangerous
4. Special operators
5. General operators
6. Officer examiners working environment conditions
7. Estimate of construction safety officer
8. Officers estimate the safety of production processes
9. Rescue
10. New labor or before labor get a job rotation.

Schedule and content of training programs tailored training objects with rules regarding the schedule and content of training programs. Principle analysis of occupational safety and health for the cause of all the layers, common layer to the basic cause, fully searchable, so it can be seen the core causes and make improvements.
Accident prevention work to prevent accidents, prior to beginning the introduction of hazards in the workplace, estimation, three-step control, in recognition of the danger to the confirmation
existence of hazards in the workplace, decide the influence of danger; in estimating there are known dangers to workers under threat of exposure or possible exposure, confirm whether exposure levels in accordance with the rules, understand the control equipment or whether the management measures according to the requirements; in controlling hazards need to be done controlling the source of danger, the danger of control lines, the additional control of exposure labor, establish security procedures.
Action handling after kecelakaan employment on Labor Protection Law and Accident Compensation, business owners at the start of labor use, should help workers to apply for employment insurance participation, to ensure workplace safety tenga. In addition, after a work accident, business owners must provide subsidies accident, when business owners do not sign up workforce participating labor insurance in accordance with the Employment Standards Act, the business owner will be fined.



D. Data Safety and Health in Industrial Electronics
a. Electronics Industry Characteristics
Characteristics of the electronic industry is operating the machinery or equipment with greater energy, machinery or equipment can operate automatically or semi-automatic or operated by using corrosive chemicals. Occupational accidents that occurred divided into 3 risk groups, namely: chemical hazards, physical hazards and ergonomic hazards.
1. Chemical hazards: inhalation or skin contact with liquid metal, liquid non-metal, hydrocarbons, dust, vapor steam, smoke, toxic gases and moisture.
2. Physical Hazards: temperature extremes of hot environments cool, non-ionizing radiation and ionizing, noise, vibration and air pressure is not normal.
3. Ergonomic hazards: hazards due to lack of lighting, work transportation and equipment.

b. Case Analysis
Eleltronik industrial equipment mostly high voltage electricity, which caused the accident rate is different. From the selected sample cases below, a lot of accidents resulting in death was trapped and crushed. Other types of accidents can also cause serious accidents. With the example case below is expected to make business owners and workers understand the importance of occupational safety and health. Three stages cause of the accident which will be analyzed:
1. Common cause: the main cause of accidents resulting in occupational safety and health.
2. Causes detail: the causes leading to the common cause.
3. Main cause of: the most basic causes leading to accidents.

After each stage of the causes described, will be given an additional explanation about the environmental conditions are not safe and unsafe behavior.
 Unsafe environment: business owners do not provide the equipment and safe procedures for working environment, work schedules are not appropriate, and training of occupational safety and health is not efficient, and so forth.
 Behavior that is not work safe: a consequence of the absence of safety culture and health, workers who do not comply with applicable procedures, and the attitude of the heart lack of attention in the work.

Classification on the outline done, in some situations can occur at the same accident, based on the point of discussion could produce different things, so that the flexible scope.
The last section is given some strategies to improve the situation improved quality of working environment and increase productivity.

c. Pinch Crushed
Case Title: Death that occurs because the carrier machine crushed raw material storage area melanism. Operators Female, 25 years, 1.5 years work experience working task in to add a liquid drug reservoirs melanism time in May of X at about 5 pm the scene of the production line equipment or object that caused the accident carriers machines raw materials, machinery stanchion carrying the sequence of events.
On a day around 4:30-5:00 pm, a manager of an electronics company production was on an inspection tour in melanism production line, everything went normal. In the evening hours of 9:20, when he conducted an inspection again, through the front door looks the production line workers have melanism reservoirs sandwiched between the basic raw material delivery machine and the pole, his face
leads to drug liquid bath, through the operation of the machine, he eventually can be moved and taken to the hospital to get help, 1 hour later the victim died. Melanism production lines in length 11 meters, 2.1 meters wide. Equipment used is a machine that works automatically, the line consists of bath water washing, acid washing tub, melanism reservoirs and other tub.
Along the right side and left there like a pole 10 x 10 cm every 2 meters distance. Walking path made against the pole with a distance of 1.8 meters from the floor and raw material delivery machine operating in the running lane.

Common Cause
1. Production line does not have security isolation equipment (figure 2.2). (unsafe environment)
2. No help or supervise the workers, the whole point there is only a worker who works alone.
3. There is no safety and health supervisor who did the inspection work. (unsafe environment).
4. Does not provide safety training and health to workers, knowledge workers will be safety and health is still lacking. (unsafe behavior).
5. No set rules safety and health in order to be obeyed by the workers. (unsafe behavior). Causes detailed 1. Business owners do not provide safety equipment and adequate health. (unsafe environment).
 Provision of a lack of manpower made it impossible to work 2 people working together. (unsafe environment).
 The company is not large (small amount of labor) that does not meet the regulatory supervision of the establishment of occupational health and safety and the lack of oversight in the workplace. (unsafe environment).
 The company ignored the importance of training health and safety and do not provide track information relating to occupational safety and health. (unsafe environment).

Main Causes
1. The Company does not have the manpower allocation planning is detailed in each section. (An unsafe environment).
2. Knowledge of the importance of occupational health and safety at the company is not sufficient. (environmental and unsafe behavior).

Control Strategy
1. Officers formed part of occupational health and safety and to check equipment and routine operation.
2. Workers are required to follow safety and health training and include examples of work this case as subject matter, knowledge workers will increase the safety and health in order to prevent the recurrence of similar accidents.
3. Establish safety rules and appropriate health and escaped censorship by the relevant agencies feasibility, and then announced and implemented mandatory.
4. Part of occupational safety and health training and perform inspections in strict working procedures.
5. Planning manpower allocation.
6. Making safety devices and equipment insulation otomastis stopping in an emergency, etc., so that workers have protective equipment.

Pinch crushed
Case Title: Deaths due to squeezed vacuum the bottom sheet when the switching machine operators operate a deputy supervisor surnamed Shen and a technician named Cien Duty 2 people working the switching engine to operate at the same sheet, using a knife to cut the copper sheet in July in time about an hour X 6:40 pm the scene of the production line equipment or objects that caused the accident which hampered knife, suction device on the copper sheet
mover machine sheet sequence of events in an IT company (Industry and Technology), a technician named Cien which was originally located in the coating of glue, on a night to operate the transfer sheet together with an assistant engineer surnamed Chai. Around 06:40 hours, Shen deputy superintendent engineer (the victim surnamed Shen) transfer working Chai assistant engineer to check the sheet, then deputy superintendent was to operate the sheet mover with this technician.
Within tens of minutes, they cut more than 20 pieces of copper, about 7 hours they use knives to cut the copper sheet, simultaneously hampered at the bottom of copper sheet (the reason may be due to hampered cutting corners or blade has a blunt, a knife about about 70-80 pieces of cut copper, after which it must be replaced with a new blade, if not then the knives will be hampered in the bottom of copper sheet having a blunt).
Cien technicians pulled the knife and started cutting the copper sheet again, deputy superintendent Shen knife may be too late, but it was because he had put a nylon cord to the hole and drive the automatic lift, because they want to save time, she put her head under vacuum tool to install knife, finally his head stuck in the bottom tool suction sheet forklift moving down to take 13ke copper sheet (figure 2.3). Because the new Cien technicians moved to the 3-day working area of the switching machine, he did not master the workings of these machines, so that at the time immediately called for assistance of other workers to operate the transfer sheet and help supervisors Shen representatives, but representatives of the supervisory pulse had stopped breathing and broken lines. Stages common cause causes Description
1. On the sheet forklift accidents are not easily installed means of isolation precautions to separate the workers approached the machine. (unsafe environment).
2. Knife hampered by machines and can not be immediately released. (unsafe environment).
3. Emergency button does not appear prominently, so that technicians could not immediately Cien pressing the button to stop the machine. (unsafe environment).
4. Deputy superintendent has the wrong view of occupational health and safety, making machines that had become semi-automatic and automatic operation of the body near the machine area. (unsafe behavior).

Detailed Causes
1. Business owners do not provide safety and health are adequate. (unsafe environment).
2. The blunt knife very easily hindered, does not require equipment providers to redesign how machines work. (unsafe environment).
3. Supervisors in automated production lines did not stop the unsafe behavior of representatives supervisor Shen. (unsafe environment).


Analysis
Main Causes
1. The Company does not install insulation equipment where accidents happen easily. (unsafe environment)
2. The Company does not have a policy requiring the job to work in accordance with work procedures or equipment repair. (unsafe behavior).
3. The Company has no knowledge of the importance of occupational safety and health and adequate training. (environmental and unsafe behavior).

Strategy
Control
1. It really runs the supervision of work, eliminate the causes of unsafe behavior and unsafe environment.
2. Provide education and training of occupational health and safety in the field of work is needed to pekerjaa. And put this case in the subject matter, in order to increase knowledge of work safety and health will work to prevent similar accidents
3. Establish safety rules and appropriate health and escaped censorship by the relevant agencies feasibility, and then announced and implemented mandatory.
4. Part of occupational safety and health training and perform the inspection procedures are strictly
5. Creating a separate protection equipment and machinery, and emergency stopping devices, etc., as a means of protection for officers.
6. Running the system of rewards and punishment, forcing the work to comply with the standard procedures of work
7. Improve operating procedures and equipment cutting blades eliminate problems that hampered the copper sheet.
8. Tools exploiters forklift flat base sheet.

E. Hit
Case Title: Deaths due to hit hanger tool automatically when the PCB with nickel melapisis service officer male, 25 years of work tasks on an inspection tour in BGA PCB production line in April in time X about 8 am Area scene in the automatic production line equipment or objects accident causing an automatic machine hanger.
The sequence of events in one day about 8 o'clock, supervisors A and B working together on an inspection tour at the point p [BGA PCB coating roduksi with nickel. Worker B gets a phone call that went to the office in front of the raw material income areas to take the call. Approximately 2 minutes later, he returned to the area earlier in the production line and see the inspector A has been lying facedown on the floor near the water washing bath area, his head bleeding, his head facing down and his feet were on the floor next to the security network, covered the back of a safety net. After that he immediately sent to the hospital to get help, but can not be saved and died.

Stages Causes Description
Common Cause
1. Entering the area of automatic operation without turning off the engine first, this is an unsafe behavior, can be seen the concept of occupational safety and health is not good enough. (behavior that is not secure)
2. Production line has no other supervisors, and not equipped with recording equipment. (unsafe environment)


Analysis
Detailed Causes
1. Lack the concept of job safety and health enough so as to bring himself in a dangerous area. (unsafe behavior).
2. The Company does not install an alarm warning of abnormal conditions, in order to prevent people who are not interested in entering the operations area. (Unsafe environment)

Main Causes
1. The Company does not force the workers to obey the standard procedures of work. (behavior that is not secure)
2. The Company has no knowledge of the importance of safety knowledge of the importance of occupational safety and health and adequate training. (environmental and unsafe behavior)

Strategy
Control
1. Job training required occupational health and safety and includes examples of this case as subject matter, increasing knowledge of work safety and health will work to prevent the recurrence of similar accidents
2. Establish safety rules and appropriate health and escaped censorship by the relevant agencies feasibility, and then announced and implemented in a mandatory
3. Part of occupational safety and health training and perform the inspection procedures are strictly



CHAPTER III
CLOSING

A. Conclusion
The cases of accidents, probably caused by an unsafe environment or unsafe behavior. Both business owners and work together to actualize the job safety and health, work all the time to report on the causes of unsafe work environment for business owners, business owners responsible for environmental improvement, correcting the behavior of insecure workers. This concept depends on the education and training of occupational safety and health in the long term, to form the safety culture and health, improving working conditions completely, become good corporate figures, so that they can help each other create jobs, ensure smooth production, achieving zero accident.

B. Advice
Gratitude to the lecturers health courses that have been given the task of this paper to me. In the preparation of this paper the author realized that there are still many things that were not clear whether it dlaam collecting material and in the writing of this paper. Therefore, authors are expected ktitikan, input / suggestions from all parties who are building for the completeness of this paper. Thanks

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The Importance Of Reading For Teens Muslim

Joy of Reading Youth Print

Reading is the need of every human being to increase and the liver and Wasilah as a means to gain knowledge. So, reading is one of the largest window for the entry of a knowledge of themselves my friends. Imam al-Shafi'I had delivered one stanza in his poem "learn! No one born in a state of knowledge, people who have the knowledge is not the same as those that eliminate ignorance itself, including the self-friends as a teenager. My friends were born from the womb of a mother with no knowledge at all equipped. My friends were packed hearing, sight, silly.

Imam al-Jarnuji quoting the opinion which confirms that success in learning is very dependent on the persistence of three people: his own friends, teachers and parents. Parents have a role to make a character of their children especially when I was little. Parents are the first teachers for every person born into the world. That is, whatever is done by the parent will always be followed by their children. Thus, parents who have a strong role to change the character of their children into good or bad, a teenager who specializes reading or lazy to read, and so forth.
Friends as teenagers also have the opportunity to determine the character himself. Relatively young age was able to determine their own choices, including determining itself as an active and avid reader or another. Some of the teens have already started thinking his future, has the desire, and also has a sense of fear of losing something he wanted. A teenager who has the desire and aspiration to be a scientist for example, wishes and aspirations must be driven by the excitement of science. Thus, among the key form the teenager who liked to read is how these teenagers INTA on knowledge.
The teacher in the success of learning activities was no doubt. The main task of a teacher in addition to carrying out learning, also provide guidance and direction to his students. Teachers should always give directions how her students become people who love to read. People who like reading will multiply his knowledge too.
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Conversion To Muscular Endurance

No matter how intensive or comprehensive it is, strength training cannot result in adequate adaptation and have a positive influence in every sport or event unless the specific physiological needs of the given sport are addressed. Most training specialists might agree with this statement, but in reality strength training programs for sport and events in which endurance is either dominant or an important component are still inadequate. Weight lifting and bodybuilding training methods still unduly influence these programs. Many researchers and strength training specialists still consider 15 to 20 repetitions to be an effective way to train M-E. Such a training regimen is grossly inadequate for sports such as mid – and long – distance swimming, rowing, canoeing, boxing, wrestling, cross – country skiing, speed skating and triathlon.

If a low – repetition strength training program with sub maximum or maximum loads is employed, the energy supply, recovery and physiological functioning of the organs and the neuromuscular system adapt to such loading. All the physiological parameters of such a program differ fundamentally from those required for effective physiological behavior of athletes involved in endurance – dominant sports. Thus, it would results in strength increments but would inhibit the endurance component of athletes’ adaptation for such sports.
A strength training program for endurance – dominant sports requires a load closely matching the resistance that must be overcome while competing, relatively low muscle tension and a high number of repetitions that approach the duration of the event. This trains athletes to cope with the fatigue specific to the sport and utilize simultaneous stimuli for both specific strength and endurance. Adaptation to such training will be very similar to the physiological requirements of competition. Fortunately, the neuromuscular system is capable of adapting to any type of training. It will, however adapt to whatever it is exposed to.
The importance of MxS for endurance – dominant sports increases in proportion to external resistance. For instance, 400 – meter swimmers swim with a higher velocity than 800 – to 1.500 – meter swimmers. To create the higher velocity, 400 meter simmers have to pull against the water resistance with greater force than 1.500 – meter athletes. Consequently MxS is more important for 400 – meter than for 1.500 – meter swimmers. In both cases, MxS must be improved from year to year if athletes except to cover the distance faster. Such improvement is possible only if swimmers improve their aerobic endurance and increase the force used to pull against the water resistance. Only this increased force will push the body through the water faster.
M – E is best increased through a strength training program that emphasizes a high number of repetitions. The selected exercises and the number of repetitions have to result in the desired adaption to the physiological requirements of the sports or event. If an adequate method is not applied during the conversion of MxS to M – E, positive transfer from one type of training to a different physiological requirement cannot be expected. In other words, if a body building or weight – lifting methodology with 20 repetitions is applied, improvement cannot be expected in a sport where 200 non stop strokes are performed during a race.
For endurance sports, aerobic endurance and M – E have to be trained at the same time. This can be done either by training each f them on separate days or by combining them in the same training session. In the latter case, M – E should be performed at the end of the session, since the specific endurance work includes technical training. Fatigue can limit combined work – outs and if the total work per day has to be decreased, M – E is normally reduced. Athletes with proper technique and aerobic endurance will find training M – E separately is more beneficial.
The strength – endurance axis refers to four types of combinations between the two abilities: power – endurance (P – E) and M – E short, medium and long. Each strength combination is required for certain sports, so the training methods for each are presented separately.

POWER – ENDURANCE METHOD
Sports like sprints in track and field, swimming and wrestling and positions like running back or pitcher require a high degree of power applied several times repetitively. Sprinting, including that in all team sports requiring explosive running (football, baseball, ice hockey, rugby and Australian football), is often misjudged. When sprinters cover the classical 100 meters in 10 to 12 second, they have trained to perform powerful leg actions throughout the entire race, not just at the start and for the following 6 to 8 strides. In a 100 – meter race, athletes take 48 to 54 strides, depending on stride length; thus each leg makes 24 to 27 contacts with the ground. In each ground contact, the force applied is approximately two times body weight.
Consequently, athletes who compete in these sports need to perform powerful actions over and over. In football, rugby and Australian football, athletes are often required to repeat a strenuous activity after only a few seconds of game interruption. To do this successfully these athletes need a high power output the ability to repeat it 20 to 30 times. This constitutes power – endurance (P – E). Athletes with a high level of P – E will have the capacity to avoid a decrease in stride frequency and velocity at the end of a race or a longer sprint.

Program Design
P – E is the determinant abilities in several sports and MxS is a determinant factor in both abilities. This section describes the training methodology for developing muscle endurance in an explosive manner, or P – E.
P – E requires 50 to 70 percent of MxS repeated rhythmically and explosively. Such a load requires dynamic repetition executed explosively 20 to 30 times nonstop. Such an important training requirement can be achieved progressively, starting with a lower number of repetitions (8 to 15) and increasing over 4 to 6 weeks, the duration of the conversion phase for such sports.
Early in the conversion phase, the FT muscle fibers were trained to instantaneously display the highest possible level of power. Now, for P – E purposes, the FT fibers are trained to resist the fatigue induced by performing many repetitions dynamically. Training is now aimed at developing the endurance component of speed, which is accomplished by progressively in creasing the number of repetitions and sets. This requires athletes to exert maximum willpower to overcome fatigue and to reach optimum mental concentration before each set is performed.
To perform a high number of sets for each primer mover, the number of exercises must be as possible (two to three). At the same time, each repetition in a set of 20 to 30 repetitions has to be performed explosively and the RI to be 5 to 7 minutes long.
During this type of work, athletes will experience a high level of lactic acid buildup. Unless this buildup is disposed of, it will impair the ability to repeat quality work. Thus, sufficient time must be allowed for removal of at least 50 percent of the total lactic acid before the next set is performed. Normally, it takes 15 to 25 minutes to remove 50 percent of the lactic acid accumulation. Since the muscle groups involved in training are being constantly alternated, by the time the same exercise is repeated, removal will take at least 20 minutes.
Speed of performance must be dynamic and explosive. Unless this rule is strictly observed, the training will be body building rather than P; the out come will be hypertrophy rather than P – E. It will take a few weeks before athletes should stop when they become incapable of performing a repetition of a set dynamically because P – E is listed in table 11.1. Figure 11.1 shows a sample 4 – week training program for a tennis player.
Table 11.1 Suggested Training Parameters for P – E
Training parameters Work
Load 50 – 70 percent
Number of exercises 2 – 3
Number of repetitions per set 15 – 30
Number of sets per session 2 – 4
Rest – interval 5 – 7 minutes
Speed of execution Very dynamic
Frequency per week 2 – 3

No Exercise Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
1 Jumping half squats 50/15 2 50/20 2 50/20 2 60/25 3
2 Medicine ball side (right and left) throws 3 x 25 3 x 30 3 x 25 4 x 30
3 Medicine ball overhead forward throws 3 x 25 3 x 30 3 x 25 4 x 30
4 Reactive jumps 2 x 15 3 x 15 2 x 15 3 x 20

Loading pattern Medium High Medium High

Figure 11.1 Four – week P – E training for an international – class tennis player RI = 5 minutes

Muscular Endurance OF Short Duration Method
In the world sports, there are several events with duration between 30 seconds and 2 minutes, such as in track and field, swimming, canoeing, speed skating and skiing. There are also sports in which intense activity of this duration is constantly required during a game or match, as in ice hockey, soccer, rugby, basketball, boxing, wrestling and the martial arts. During such intense activity, athletes build up a high level of lactic acid, often more than 12 to 15 mill moles per liter, which shows that the lactic acid, often more system is either dominant or an important component in the overall performance of the sport or event. Most of these sports require very strong anaerobic power as well as very good aerobic endurance.
Strength training must complement overall physiological demands. One of the key objectives for endurance sports is to train athletes to tolerate fatigue, so strength training should have the same goal. As the competitive phase approaches, so strength training must be designed so that it challenges athletes’ ability to tolerate a high buildup of lactic acid.
The specifics of M – ES are similar to the intensive internal training method used in circuit training (CT) where an oxygen debt is developed during the RI, which is typical for activities where the anaerobic energy system prevails. After 60 to 90 seconds of such activity, the heart rate can be as high as 180 to 200 beats per minute and blood lactic acid concentration between 12 and 15 mill moles per liter, or even higher. The energy sources for M – ES are blood and muscle glucose and in particular, the glycogen stored in the liver.
The structure of M – ES can follow the format of CT, in which the repetitions are performed rhythmically and at a fast pace. The load is not very high, 50 to 60 percent, but is performed at a high intensity, at or close to the rate in competition and thus the lowest number of exercises (three to six) should be selected.
The number of repetitions can be set precisely, but as in interval training, it is more appropriate to decide the duration of each set and the speed of performance (30 to 60 seconds). If the number of exercises is low, there to six sets or circuits can be performed. The speed of performance and the duration and number of sets have to be increased progressively over time from a lower level to that suggested in figure 11.2. To train athletes to tolerate lactic acid buildup, the RI must be short (60 to 90 second). Table 11.2
Table 11.2 Suggested Training Parameters for M – ES
Training parameters Work
Load 50 – 60 percent
Number of exercises 3 – 6
Duration of activity 30 – 60 seconds
Number of sets per session 3 – 6
Rest interval 60 – 90 second
Speed of execution Medium to fast
Frequency per week


No Exercise Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6
1 Bent – over arm pulls; load 50 % 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 second 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 seconds 3 x 45 seconds
2 Abdominal V – sits (reps) 2 x 20 2 x 25 2 x 30 2 x 25 2 x 30 2 x 35
3 Lay on back, arms above head, hold; medicine ball forward throws 1 x 25 2 x 25 2 x 30 2 x 25 2 x 30 2 x 30
4 Leg extensions; load 50% 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 seconds 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 seconds 2 x 45 seconds
5 Cable elbow extensions; load 60% 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 seconds 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 seconds 2 x 45 seconds

Loading pattern Low Medium High Low Medium High

Figure 11.2 Six – week training program for M – ES training. Figure 11.2 is a sample 6 – week program for a national class 100 meter fly swimmer.

Muscular Endurance of Medium and Long Duration Method
The development of M – E is one of the main factors in improving performance for all sports where performance time is greater than 2 minutes. A specific strength training program has to relate to the non stop duration of activity for sports where aerobic endurance is either dominant or an important component of the final performance.
M – E training is of major benefit for boxing wrestling, rowing, swimming (400 to 1.500 meters), kayaking/canoeing (1.000 to 10.000 meters), road cycling, cross – country skiing, biathlon and triathlon. The incorporation of M l- E of medium duration during the preparatory phase is also beneficial for some team sports, especially rugby, ice hockey, basketball, soccer and Australian football.
M – E training can be performed as CT following the principle of interval training of long duration. This training method can also be called “extensive interval training”, because the tern extensive implies a high – volume, long duration type of activity. The main objective of training for M – E is to increase the ability to cope with fatigue. Athletes improve anaerobic and aerobic endurance, since M – E training employs a high number of repetitions, often more than 100. In the early par of a nonstop set with many repetitions, energy is provided by the anaerobic system. This produces a buildup of lactic acid that creates physiological and psychological problems for athletes as they attempt to continue the activity. As these challenges are over come and athletes continue to work, energy is supplied by the aerobic system. Repetitive M – E training results in specific adaptations that improve cardiovascular regulation and aerobic metabolism.
Physiological adaptations promote better oxygen and energy supply and increase the removal of metabolic wastes. Repetitive M – E training increases glycogen stores in both muscles and liver. Thus, the specific benefit of M – E training is an overall increase in physiological efficiency.
Because M – E employs such a relatively low load (around 30 to 50 percent), the muscles improve their long – term contracting capability without any evident increase in muscle fiber diameter. Only a certain number of motor units are active at one time; the others are at rest and are activated only when and where the contracting fibers become fatigued. Improvement of MxS during that phase is also beneficial for sports where M – E represents an important training method. If the diameter of an individual muscle fiber has increased as a result of MxS, a smaller number of motor units are needed to perform an M – E training task.
This type of strength reserve is critical and increases the muscle’s capacity to produce work more effectively since fewer fibers are involved to overcome the resistance. Thus, MxS should not be minimized. On the contrary, it should within limits, be used for all the sports mentioned or sports that require less than 30 percent of MxS to perform the activity, further increments of MxS have negligible, if any benefit (Hartmann & Tunnemann, 1988).
M – E medium and M – E long training have similar physiological bases. M – E medium (M – EM) is, however suggested for sports where the duration of competition is between 2 and 10 minutes, whereas M – E long (M – EL) is suggested for sports where the duration is 10 minutes or longer. This distinction is necessary because M – EM has a stronger anaerobic component, whereas M – EL is clearly aerobic. The program designs for each type of M – E will be described separately since the load, duration of a set and speed of execution are clearly different.

Program Design for Muscular Endurance of Medium Duration
The M – EM training program can be designed either as CT or as interval training. The first option is suggested for sports where it is necessary to train more muscle groups (wrestling, boxing) whereas the seconds is advisable for sports where one limb prevails (speed skating, canoeing). An example will be presented for each option.
The load for M – EM is 40 to 50 percent (table 11.3) performed progressively over a longer durations. As show in table 11.4 and 11.5 the duration and number of repetitions are increased progressively over a longer period. The duration of the conversion phase for M – E must be 8 to 10 weeks. This length of time is necessary for physiological adaptation to such high training. Throughout the M – EM phase, the load, number of exercises, rest interval and speed of execution remain constant. The number of repetitions, however, increases every second week (table 11.4).
As shown in table 11.3, the rest interval between sets is short, so athletes have insufficient time to recover adequately. However, the program considers the physiological characteristics of the sports employing M – EM and is designed precisely to expose athletes to high levels of fatigue constantly so they learn to cope with the pain and exhaustion of competitions.

Table 11.3 Training Parameters for M – EM
Training parameters Work
Load 40 – 50 percent
Number of exercises 4 – 8
Number of sets per session 2 – 4
Rest interval between sets 2 minutes
Rest interval between circuits 5 minutes
Speed of execution Medium
Frequency per week 2 – 3

Table 11.4 Hypothetical CT for a Wrestler
Number of weeks
Exercise 2 2 2 2
Half squats 30 40 50 60
Arm curls 30 40 50 60
Leg curls 30 40 50 60
Bench presses 30 40 50 60
V – sits 15 20 25 30
Dead lifts 15 18 20 25

Table 11.4 shows a difference in number of reps between the first four exercises and the last two. The latter exercises are considered a lower priority. The ability to perform more repetitions of this exercise requires a solid training background of several years. The load for a dead lift must be lower (30 to 40 percent) and used carefully with beginners (long – term progression).
A CT designed for either M – EM or M – EL can be use a barbell or any other piece of equipment. The advantage of using a barbell is that different limbs can be exercised without stopping to rest, as required in the circuit shown in table 11.5.
The circuit in table 11.5 includes eight exercises performed as follows. Place a barbell of 40 percent of MxS on the shoulders and perform 50 half squats. After completing the last repetition, sit on a bench and perform 40 arm curls. Then lie on the bench and do 50 bench presses. Quickly place the barbell back on the shoulders and perform 50 half squats. Follow this with 50 vertical rowing actions. Again, quickly place the barbell back on the shoulders and perform 60 toe raises followed by 50 dead lifts. Now place the barbell on the floor and perform 50 V – sits for the abdominal muscles. The total number of repetitions performed in our hypothetical circuit is 400.
The advantage of this method is that as training alternates different muscles groups, the cardio respiratory system in involved throughout the circuit. This develops M – E and aerobic endurance, the two crucial abilities for any of the sports discussed in this chapter.
Table 11.5 Example of an M – EM for a Rower
Number of weeks
Exercise 3 – 4 3 3 2
Half squat Take a load of 30 – 50 percent and progressively aim to perform 50 – 60 reps nonstop per exercise Perform two exercises nonstop or 100 reps together, for instance, 50 half squats followed by 50 arm curls. Pair the remaining six exercises Perform four exercises nonstop, or 200 repetitions. After a rest interval, repeat the other four exercises in the same manner Perform all exercises; eight exercises x 50 repetitions = 400 repetitions nonstop
Arm curls
Bench presses
Half squats
Seated rows
Toe raises
Dead raises
V – sits
Rest interval between exercises 1 minute 1 – 2 minutes between each groups of two 2 minutes between each group of four -
Rest interval between circuits - - - 4 – 5 minutes
A similar program can be developed for 400 – to 1.500 – meter swimming, middle – distance events in speed skating, kayaking/canoeing and so on.
To further clarify the information table 11.5:
The number of repetitions is progressively increased to reach 40 to 60 or even higher; 2 o 4 weeks may be needed to accomplish this.
The number of exercises may vary depending on the needs of the sport.
The same exercises can be repeated twice in the same circuit to emphasize the importance of that group of muscles in a given sport (half squats in our example).
The number of exercises may not be the same for every limb. This decision should be based on the strength and weaknesses of the athletes involved.
Observe a steady speed throughout the circuit; it will be easier on the cardio respiratory system.
Set up all the equipment needed before training, so the least amount of time is wasted changing from one exercises to another.
Perform two exercises nonstop in the second phase, four exercises in the third phase and all of them in the last phase.
It may take 6 to 8 minutes or longer to perform an eight – exercises circuit nonstop, depending on the classification of the athlete involved. An even longer circuit can be designed for better improvement of M – EL.
Since the physiological demand of M – E and M – EL are severe, this method should be applied only to athletes with a strong background in both strength and endurance training (national – class athletes and higher). For a less demanding circuit (for juniors) include only four to six exercises.
It is best to use an even number of exercises because of the way they are performed – two, then four then all together nonstop.
As athletes adapt to performing the total number of exercises nonstop during the last phase, the coach can be use a stopwatch to monitor improvement. As a result of adaptation, the time of performance may decrease continuously.

This type of M – EM training should not be used for purpose or for comparing the achievements of two or more athletes. Since anthropometrics (size or length of limbs) differ from athlete to athlete, such a comparison would be unfair, especially for all athletes.

Program Design for Muscular Endurance of Long Duration
Sports of longer duration require a different kind of physiological training. In most of these sports, athletes apply force against a given resistance, for example: water in swimming, rowing and canoeing; the pedals in cycling (body weight applied as strength, especially uphill); ice in speed skating; or snow and various terrains in cross – country skiing and biathlon.
The dominant energy system in these sports is aerobic endurance. Since improved performance is expected to come from increments in aerobic power, strength training must be designed to enhance this. To increase M – EL, there fore, the key training ingredient is a high number of repetitions performed nonstop. The other training parameters remain constant, as indicated in table 11.6.
Since one of the training goals of M – EL is to cope with fatigue; the RI does not allow full recovery. Only a very shorts rest is afforded as athletes change stations, usually 2 to 5 seconds.
Table 11.7 exemplifies a typical training program for M – EL for sports such as triathlon, marathon, kayaking/canoeing (10.000 meters and marathon), and long – distance swimming, road cycling and cross – country skiing. Note that the work is expressed in minutes rather than number of repetitions to make it easier to monitor the many minutes of steady work.
The first four exercises can be performed with a Universal gym or any similar training machine. The last two exercises must be performed using rubber cords, often called elastic cords, which are available in many sporting goods stores. Since this particular program is for long – distance kayaking or canoeing, the elastic cords must be anchored before training so that arm pulls or elbow extensions, typical motions for these two sports, can be performed from a seated position.

Table 11.6 Suggested Training Parameters for M – EL
Training parameters Work
Load 30 – 40 percent
Number of exercises 4 – 6
Number of repetitions per set 2 – 4
Rest – interval See table 11.5
Speed of execution Medium
Frequency per week 2 – 3
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When Ruh Ungodly Out Of Body

Imam Ghazali gives an overview of the condition of those who rebelled when the pressure of death. As described in the Ad-Darratul Al-Fakhirah Fil Kasf Ulumil Akhirah. Seconds that the death of the ungodly, his life will be lifted to cruel and forced. When it reached his face look like someone who ate fruit Hanzal. And the angel said to him: "O come out of bad lives dirty body!" Suddenly there came a piteous moan like braying Kimar. This is because Azrael has pull with the angel who appeared Zabaniah himself with a very bad way and the terrible, black, smelly and disgusting. There in the middle twist, past the hair. Inserted into the loops of her hair, and will turn into human form in accordance with the size of the net at least actions charity. . As mentioned in Sahih Muslim, narrated from Abu Hurairah ra as follows (in the teeth of hell for unbelievers a mountain of Uhud, and the skin is thick as three-day trip)
Furthermore, the angels continue to bring life apart from this infidel, rose to the surface of the sky world. and Al-Amin (Gabriel) knocked on the door and asked again: "Who are you? and he replied: "I am Gabriel". To be asked again: "Who came with you? He replied Sifulan bin Sifulan, ugly, ugly name and all that is most disliked the world. Then say to him, there is no mention and welcome "the gates of heaven were opened there was nothing for him, let us refer to the Word of God:

Meaning:
May it never be opened for them the gates of heaven, and not (too) they go to heaven, until the camel into the eye of a needle. Thus we recompense the evil doers. (Q.S.Al-A 'Raf: 40)

Hearing these words, Al-Amin (Gabriel) immediately threw the spirit of people who have in hand, and the spirit was drifting in the wind fell very far away place, let us reflect on the Word of Allah SWT.


Meaning:
He who ascribe things to God it is as if falling from the sky and struck by birds or the wind far place. (Q. S. Al-Hajj: 31)

How insult her what had happened to the rebellious spirit (unbelievers) when it comes to earth, he was immediately bullied by the angel Zabaniah and dragged in prison. Big stone into a residence for the souls of the ungodly. Thus, as it is also mentioned in the book Dapail Akbar.

1. On the condition of the soul after leaving the body
a. Jews and Christians
Regarding their souls when they refused to dikursi and returned them to grave each.
b. People who are still monopoly shari'ah "religion"
They still can see his body is washed and buried.
c. People who polytheists
So the spirit they can not be seen at all because they have fallen spirits and carried by the wind while the souls of the hypocrites is like the second group is rejected and returned to her grave.
d. Believers who regular careless and underestimated, shari'ah religion.
So they kind of varied. Among them was rejected because of his prayer when he did he melobangi and find that prayer, prayer that conditions such as folds of fabric to be worn. Then cast kewajahnya.
There was also rejected because he tithe Zakah for the purpose just want to say as an expert, or maybe he alms charity aimed specifically at women, to attract love and perhatianya. Among them were rejected fast, because he was fasting only from food and drink, while he had never spoken to fast, he has done disobedience and losses while after ramadan end he could not improve some of them rejected Hajj, because she was on pilgrimage as merely Sifulan have said that the pilgrimage, or haj with his property that is not clean. Among them were rejected because of kedurhakaannya parents, and l; ain so on.
And we need to know that the longing for God that lies in the longing Mother-Father. As in the hadith which Muslim and Judge Reported.

Meaning:
"The longing for God that lies in the desire both mother-father and the wrath of God is located on the wrath of both mother-father did". (H. B. Muslim, Justice with Muslim Shari'a)

Therefore we are not justified to be rude or disobedience to them, because both our parents have trouble giving birth and raising contains us. therefore we must apply manners of our parents and other relatives so on. Sesusai with the Word of God in surah Al-Luqman:

It means: "And we have enjoined on man (do good) to my mother's father has been contained in a weak state that grew weak and weaning in two years, thanks to the two people and your father's mother, only to all of you're back" (Surah Luqman: 14 )

So every child can not hurt his mother's father, either by word or deed, either directly or indirectly, even in the Qur'an it is mentioned that a child should not say "ah".



Indonesian Version Please download : When Ruh Ungodly Out Of body
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Makalah Leadership

TAKTIK JITU MEMPENGARUHI


PENDAHULUAN



A. Latar Belakang Masalah
Taktik mempengaruhi adalah hal penting di dalam semua situasi kepemimpinan. Dalam makalah ini penulis akan memberikan taktik yang hebat untuk mempengaruhi orang lain. Misalnya Anda sebagai model peran. Disini Anda memimpin dengan contoh sehingga orang lain dapat belajar dari tindakan dan sikap Anda. Pastikan tindakan dan kata-kata Anda konsisten.



B. Pokok Permasalahan
1. Apa saja taktik mempengaruhi orang lain itu?
2. Apakah taktik mempengaruhi itu sangat penting bagi seorang pemimpin?
3. Bagaimana caranya mempengaruhi orang lain?

C. Tujuan Penulisan
Penulis menyusun makalah ini bertujuan disamping untuk memenuhi tugas yang diberikan oleh Dosen Pengampu, juga untuk menambah wawasan dan ilmu pengetahuan bagi penulis sendiri. Dengan ini dapat mengetahui letak kemampuan dan keterbatasan ilmu penulis. Juga para pembaca makalah ini, akan mendapatkan ilmu yang lebih mendalam lagi.

D. Metode Penulisan
Metode yang digunakan untuk menyusun makalah ini ialah dengan mengambil dan menyalin dari buku referensi menurut silabus mata kuliah Leadership. Selanjutnya disusun secara runtun sehingga tersusun dan selesailah makalah ini.


PEMBAHASAN TAKTIK JITU MEMPENGARUHI

Dalam makalah ini kita akan mempelajari beberapa taktik yang hebat untuk mempengaruhi orang lain di tempat kerja atau lainnya karenanya kita berlatih kepemimpinan.
A. Anda Sebagai Model Peran
Cara sderhana tapi efektif untuk mempengaruhi anggota kelompok adalah memimpin dengan contoh. Anda harus bertindak sebagai model peran positif sehingga orang lain dapat belajar dari tindakan dan sikap Anda. Pendekata ideal untuk memimpin dengan contoh adalah “Lakukan seperti aku katakan dan lakukan”.
Pastikan tindakan dan kata-kata Anda konsisten. Tindakan dan kata-kata Anda harus sesuai, selaras dan saling menguatkan. Tanpa konsistensi, Anda akan kehilangan kredibilitas dan orang tidak akan lagi menghormati Anda sebagai Anda sebagai pemimpin. Bangun reputasi sebagai tipe orang yang bisa contoh orang lain. Perlakukan orang lain dengan keramahan dan kesopanan sebagaimana Anda ingin diperlakukan oleh orang lain.

B. Menjadi Pemimpin Yang Baik
Untuk menjadi pemimpin, seseorang harus memberi inspirasi bagi orang lain untuk mencapai tujuan yang bermanfaat, metode yang alamiah adalah dengan daya tarik inspirasional atau mempengaruhi orang lain untuk melakukan sesuatu dengan memicu respons emosional tertentu. Daya mempengaruhi itu adalah .....
a. Apa yang Anda ingin orang lain lakukan atau rasakan?
Titik awal untuk menciptakan daya tarik inspirasional adalah mengidentifikasi apa yang Anda ingin orang lain lakukan atau rasakan. Kemudian pilihan kata, kalimat dan ide yang sesuai dengan tujuan Anda. Misalnya, sebagai Manajer Anda kecewa dengan sikap karyawan Anda yang ceroboh dalam hal kebersihan dan kerapian tempat kerja, jadi komentar Anda yang pas untuk memberi inspirasi adalah .....
- Apa kamu tidak ingin kelihatan tampil sebagai pemenang?
- Jika kita ingin orang lain menganggap kita profesional, kita harus tampil seperti profesional.

b. Gunakan kata-kata dan kalimat yang berpengaruh
Setiap kali Anda berupaya memberi inspirasi, pakailah bahasa yang dapat berpengaruh besar. Misalnya, Anda ingin karyawan meningkatkan keselamatan kerja mereka. Selain menyampaikan aturan keselamatan kerja yang harus dipatuhi, Anda bisa menambahkan ......
- Saya tidak ingin melihat atau mendengar tentang tubuh yang hancur dipabrik ini.
- Kita butuh lingkungan yang aman, nyaman dan ramah.

c. Ajukan pertanyaan yang benar
Salah satu tekhnik inspirasi yang efektif adalah mengajukan pertanyaan yang menimbulkan jawaban yang emosional. Pertanyaan Anda mendorong karyawan untuk memberi jawaban yang memicu emosi mereka dan membuat mereka bertindak. Pertanyaan yang diajukan seperti “Apa kalian tidak ingin tampil sebagai pemenang?” mengajukan pertanyaan sering kali lebih bagus ketimbang membuat pertanyaan seperti: “Saya ingin kalian mulai tampil sebagai pemenang”. Menjawab pertanyaan akan menyebabkan munculnya aktivitas mental dan komitmen bukan sekedar mendengar pesan saja.

d. Memberi inspirasi orang lain dengan kisah sukses
Kisah sukses adalah salah satu jalan untuk memberi inspirasi bagi orang lain agar mengembangkan diri mereka. Carilah melalui buku atau media lainnya cerita tentang orang-orang biasa yang mencapai prestasi hebat. Orang sering kali terinspirasi oleh cerita-cerita orang biasa yang mengawali bisnis dapur atau garasi dan berhasil menjadi pemimpin bisnis tingkat dunia.

C. Jadilah Pribadi Yang Menarik
Cara lain untuk mempengaruhi orang lain adalah cara yang berkaitan erat dengan karisma dan daya tarik inspirasional orang dengan kepribadian menawan akan menarik orang lain melalui pesona dan kualitas yang berkarisma seperti Carly Fiona, eksekutif papan atas di Hewlett – Packard adalah salah satu contoh luar biasa. Orang-orang yang mengenalnya mendeskripsikannya sebagai perempuan yang menonjol, cemerlang dan hangat. Keramahan Fiona membuat dirinya mudah di dekati. Konsekuennya, karyawan tidak ragu-ragu untuk mengemukakan persoalan kepadanya.

 Lepaskan emosi pada saat yang tepat
Cara lain untuk memberi inspirasi kepada orang lain adalah dengan menunjukkan emosi. Tunjukkan emosi dan perasaan Anda dengan cara yang terencana dan taksis. Ledakan emosi yang positif juga membantu untuk membangkitkan respons emosional dari anggota kelompok. Berteriak, tertawa mendadak atau menangis terharu dapat memperuat efektivitas kepemipinan.
Daya tarik emosional dan penampilan emosional adalah bagian penting dari kepemimpinan yang karismatik, akan tetapi jika Anda selalu emosional, maka Anda tidak akan dianggap sebagai pemimpin yang strategis dan tenang, ngamuk-ngamuk setiap hari juga akan menjengkelkan orang lain.

D. “Wah, Aku Suka Masukanmu”
Berkonsultasilah dengan orang lain sebelum mengambil keputusan. Ini adalah taktik yang sederhana tapi efektif untuk mempengaruhi orang lain. Musyawarah adalah taktik mempengaruhi yang paling efektif ketika tujuan dari seseorang yang akan dipengaruhi sesuai dengan tujuan pemimpin. Ini adalah saran-saran ketika Anda hendak bermusyawarah:
- Ketika Anda bermusyawarah dengan orang lain, jangan sampai terlihat oleh orang lain bahwa Anda sudah punya keputusan. Jika tidak, Anda akan tampak selalu menggurui.
- Bantahlah saran yang tak berguna dengan baik-baik.

E. Tak Ada Yang Menyamai Si Jenius
Menjadi seorang pakar pokok masalah (Subject Matter Expert – SME) pada topik yang pentig bagi organisasi adalah strategi yang efektif untuk mempengaruhi orang lain. Menjadi seorang SME berarti bisa mempengaruhi orang lain dengan membujuk mereka secara rasional. Tapi, jika Anda terlalu mendalam di dalam peran pakar teknis, hal itu malah bisa merintangi promosi Anda menuju ke posisi pemimpin. Jika Anda seorang SME, biarkan orang tahu bahwa Anda juga mampu dalam hal manajemen dan supervisi.

F. Jadilah Orang Yang Suka Menolong
Menawarkan pertolongan kepada orang yang membutuhkan bantuan adalah taktik dasar untuk mempengaruhi orang. Dengan saling menolong. Anda sekaligus melakukan tawar menawar dengan pihak lain. Dengan kata lain, Anda menolong hari ini dengan harapan Anda mendapat pertolongan di kemudian hari jika memang membutuhkan seperti contoh:
Manajer Sumber Daya Manusia (SDM) mengambil inisiatif membantu seorang rekannya di perusahaan lain untuk merekrut seorang analis kompensasi yang cacat secara fisik. Beberapa bulan kemudian, manajer SDM itu meminta rekannya tersebut untuk mencalonkannya sebagai anggota masyarakat profesional.


G. Memanipulasi Orang Lain Secara Etis
Manipulasi yang dideskripsikan disini adalah metode mempengaruhi orang lain secara halus, tidak langsung dan terselubung yang kadang menggunakan tipuan atau terkadang tidak. Penipuan disini berarti menyimpang dari kebenaran, tetapi bukan secara ngawur atau culas. Jika Anda orang yang etis, mungkin Anda akan menghindari tipuan.
Manipulasi terkadang diperlukan karena taktik mempengaruhi secara langsung mungkin tidak efektif karena alasan keadaan, tetapi manipulasi juga jika dipakai secara tidak etis, taktik manipulasi dapat menjadi senjata makan tuan dan melemahkan kredibilitas menjadi seorang pemimpin. Berikut ada tiga tekhnik yang bermanfaat bagi pemimpin.

1. Tekhnik Band Wagon
Tekhnik ini mempengaruhi orang lain dengan menunjukkan bahwa orang lain terlibat dalam kegiatan yang telah ditetapkan. Caranya begini:
Austin Bewer adalah manajer sistem informasi. Bosnya Austin sedang berencana menginventariskan uangnya pada Website yang punya Link dengan situs lain. Untuk mengatasi keinginan bosnya, Austin memberitahu kepada Si Bos “saya sudah meriset Website itu, kita satu-satunya perusahaan yang kecil. Lagipula, kita kehilangan banyak komisi karena tak punya Link dengan pemain utama. Apa yang harus kita lakukan?” bosnya menjawab “Kalau begitu, mari kita bangun Link itu”.

2. Bercanda dan membanyol
Canda dan banyolan biasanya menjadi tekhnik yang sangat berguna ketika Anda mempengaruhi seseorang yang hubungannya dengan Anda tidak begitu formal. Gurauan dan banyolan harus bisa menyampaikan pesan, tetapi jangan sampai masuk kehumor yan kasar. Barangkali tak masalah berkata kepada rekan sekerja “Aku tahu kamu terlalu sibuk menjalin jaringan kerja sampai-sampai tak sempat memberi aku informasi”. Tetapi jangan bilang “Aku tahu kamu sibuk merayu orang-orang”.

3. Menunjukkan manfaat tersembunyi
Adalah tekhnik dimana agen pengaruh menyinggung beberapa keuntungan tertentu yang mungkin muncul dari hal-hal yang dikeluhkan. Misalnya:
Beberapa karyawan menolak ditugaskan selama enam bulan sebagai tenaga khusus karena mereka menganggap pekerjaan itu membosankan lalu agen pengaruh mengatakan “Tugas khusus ini bisa merupakan peluang besar, melakukan tugas khusus adalah cara terbaik untuk mendapat perhatian dari manajemen”.


PENUTUP

A. Kesimpulan
Dari uraian tersebut dapat disimpulkan paling tidak Anda harus tahu hal ini:
1. Mempengaruhi orang lain dengan contoh dan menunjukkan emosi.
2. Menjadi orang yang punya daya tarik personal adalah cara umum untuk mempengaruhi orang.
3. Saling menolong tetap merupakan salah satu taktik pengaruh yang efektif
4. Bermusyawarah adalah cara efektif untuk membuat orang lain memahami pikiran Anda.
5. Jadilah pakar persoalan untuk memperkuat kemampuan Anda mempengaruhi orang lain.
6. Memanipulasi orang harus dilakukan secara etis.

B. Saran
Demikianlah, makalah ini penulis susun sedemikian singakt. Mudah-mudahan makalah ini dapat bermanfaat bagi penulis dan para pembaca, setidaknya mengetahui bagaimana caranya mempengaruhi orang lain bila kita menjadi seorang pemimpin.
Cukup sampai disini, mohon kritik dan sarannya bila dalam penyusunan makalah ini terdapat kesalahan dan kekurangan.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Andrew J. Dubrin. 2009. “The Complete Idiot’s Guides to Leadership 2nd Edition” Alih Bahasa : Tri Wibowo. B.S. Jakarta: Prenada.


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Pertanian Skala Kecil

Pertanian Skala Kecil
Alasan paling mendasar atas terjadinya pemusatan penduduk dan kegiatan produksi di sector pertanian dan produksi output primer (bahan-bahan mentah) lainnya di negara-negara berkembang itu sebenarnya sederhana saja, yakni, kenyataan bahwa pada tingkat pendapatan yang rendah perioritas pertama pada setiap orang adalah pangan, pakaian dan papan. Rendahnya produktivitas pertanian tidak hanya disebabkan oleh besarnya jumlah penduduk dibandingkan dengan luas tanah yang tersedia, tetapi juga karena teknologi yang dipergunakan oleh sektor pertanian di negara-begara berkembang itu seringkali masih rendah atau bahkan primitif, organisasi atau pengelolanya yang buruk, dan masing sangat terbatasnya kualitas input modal fisik dan mansuia. Keterbelakangan teknologi itu sendiri disebabkan pertanian negara-negara Dunia Ketiga didominasi oleh petani-petani kecil nonkomersial. Selain itu, banyak petani di negara-negara Dunia Ketiga, khususnya di kawasan Asia dan Amerika Latin, yang tidak memiliki tanah sendiri. Mereka, hanya menyewa sebidang tanah garapan yang sempit dari para tuan tanah.

Ketergantungan pada Ekspor Primer
Pada umumnya, perekonomian negara-negara berkembang lebih banyak berorientasi ke produksi barang primer (produk-produk pertanian, bahan bakar, hasil pertyanian, hasil hutan, dan bahan-bahan mentah) daripada barang sekunder (manufaktur) dan barang terserier (jasa-jasa). Komoditi-komoditi primer tersebut andalan ekspor yang utama ke negara-negara lain (baik ke negara-negara manu maupun ke sesama negara-negara berkembang).

Sebagian besar negara-negara miskin sangat membutuhkan devisa (foreign exchange) unntuk menambah tabungan domestik dalam rangka membiayai proyek-proyek pembangunan yang teramat penting. Meskipun arus penanaman modal asing swasta dan bantuan luar negeri memang membantu (walaupun belakangan ini jumlahnya justru cenderung terus berkurang), ekspor berbagai macam komoditi primer itu tetap merupakan sumber devisa yang utama bagi negara-negara berkembang, lebih dari 50 persen jumlah mata uang asing yang mereka miliki diperoleh dari ekspor komoditi primer tersebut. Sialnya, banyak negara berkembang yang terlilit utang luar negeri dalam jumlah sangat besar sehingga sebagian besar devisa haisl ekspor tahun 1980-an dan 1990-an harus mereka relakan sebagai pembayaran cicilan dan bunga utang. Bahkan selama beberapa tahun terakhir ini, mereka mengalami arusmodal internasional yang negatif, artinya mata uang asing yang mengalir keluar ternyata lebih banyak daripada yang mengalir masuk.

Sekalipun ekspor sangat penting bagi negara-negara sedang berkembang pada umumnya namun pertumbuhan ekspor negara-negara Dunia Ketiga (tidak termasuk minya) ternyata tidak dapat mengimbangi ekspor negara-negara maju. Itulah sebabnya (walaupun dalam tahun-tahun terbaik), negara-negara berkembang pengekspor komoditi primer nonminyak mengalami kemerosotan dalam sumbangannya terhadap nilai total perdagangan dunia. Kedudukan mereka bila dibandingkan dengan nagara-negara maju semakin lama semakin rendah. Sebagai contoh, di tahun 1950, ekspor mereka hampir mencapai 33 persen dari total nilai perdagangan sedunia. Namun, sejak saat itu sumbangan mereka tersebut terus merosot hampir setiap tahunnya bahkan belakangan ini berada pada kisaran 25 persen. Bahkan, sumbangan dari negara-negara miskin terhadap nilai total perdagangan hanya sekitar 3%. Keberhasilan ekspor terbesar selama dekade 1970-an diraih oleh negara-negara anggota OPEC dan ke-Empat Macan Asia. Sedangkan, selama dekade 1980-an dan 1990-an, beberapa negara industri baru lainnya turut bergabung dalam kelompok pengekspor yang paling agresif ini.

Pasar Yang Tidak Sempurna dan Informasi Tidak Memadai
Pada dekade 1980-an dan 1990-an, hampir setiap negara berkembang, dengan kecepatan yang berbeda-beda, bergerak menuju sistem perekonomian pasar. Banyak negara melakukan hal tersebut atas anjuran Bank Dunia, yang sering menjadikannya sebagai syarat permebrian bantuan. Nampaknya telah muncul semacam konsensus bahwa peran aktif pemerintah perlu dikurangi dan pasar perlu diberi kelesuasaan lebih besar demi tumbuhnya perekonomian yang lebih sehat dan subur.

Di banyak negara berkembang, perangkat hukum/legal dan isntitusionalnya, kalau pun ada, masih sangat lemah guna mendukung beroperasionalnya makanisme pasar secara efektif dan efisien. Tanpa adanya sistem hukum yang mapan, misalya, segala kontrak dan perjanjian bisnis hanya akan tinggal di atas kertas, hak cipta hanya sekedar buah bibir, dan kurs mata uang pun bisa berubah kapan saja. Dalam situasi di mana kepastian hukum begitu minim, jelaslah bisnis takkan dapat diharapkan berkembang dengan baik. Sarana infrastruktur dan keuangan adalah masalah berikutnya. Tanpa adanya jalan-jalan raya, sistem telekomunikasi dan listrik, atau sistem perbankan yang kuat serta jamminannya dan pasar kredit formal yang melakukan skleksi dan alokasi dana-dana pinajaman berdasarkan profibilitas ekonomi relatif dan menerapkan aturan pembayaran kembali, informasi pasar yang mencukupi bagi konsumen maupun produsen mengenai harga, kuantitas, dan kualitas produk serta sumber-sumber daya seperti juga creditiortiness para peminjam potensial dan sikap atau perilaku yang dapat mendukung keberlangsungan hubungan bisnis yang baik. Ketujuh faktor tersebut, diringi oleh keberadaan sekala ekonomi di berbagai sektor-sekotor utama perekonomian, kecilnya pasar dari berbagai produk akibat terbatasnya permintaan dan sedikitnya penjual, penyebaran eksternalitas (biaya atau keuntungan yang ditimbulkan oleh perusahaan atau individu karena tidak melakukan produksi atau konsumsi) dalam produksi dan konsumsi, dan kelaziman adanya kepemilikan umum sumber-sumber daya (misalnya, laut yang mengandung ikan, tanah penggembalaan ternak, lubuk air) berarti bahwa pasar di negara-negara sedang berkembang tersebut seringkali sangat tidak sempurna. Dalam kondisi seperti ini, selain itu juga sangat terbatas dan untuk mendapatkannya diperlukan biaya yang tinggi, selain itu juga seringkali menyebabkan barang, keuangan, dan sumber-sumber daya sulit menyebar. Pada gilirannya hal ini seringkali mengakibatkan alokasi sumber data yang tidak tepat. Dengan adanya kemajuan dalam teori ekonomi, sekarang kita dapat memahami bahwa hanya dengan eksternalitas yang kecil saja dapat memahami bahwa hanya dengan perekonomian menuju jebakan keterbelakangan. Terlepas dari apakah ketidaksempurnaan pasar (imperfect market) dan ketidaklengkapan informasi (incomplete information) ini perlu diimbangi dengan peningkatan peran pemerintah, yang juga merupakan penyebab dari ketidaklengkapan dan ketidaksemprnaan informasi (akan dibahas di banyak negara berkembang dan merupakan sumber penting dari keterbelakangan mereka.

Dominasi, Ketergantungan, dan Kerapuhan dalam Hubungan Internasional
Ada satu faktor yang tdiak kentara, tetapi sangat penting, yang turut menyebabkan berlarut-larutnya keterbelakangan negara Dunia Ketiga, yakni transfer nilai-nilai sikap kelembagaan, dan stndar-standar perilaku dari negara Dunia Pertama dan Kedua ke negara-neara Dunia Ketiga. Hal tersebut meliputi transfer struktur pendidikan kurikulum, sistem sekolah yang sering tidak sesuai, pembentukan serikat buruh ala barat yang terlalu longgar dan agresif untuk ukuran Timur, pengadaan berbagai macam organisasi dan orientasi pelayanan kesehatan ala Barat yang lebih bersifat kuratif, bukannya preventif, serta transfer corak prosedur dan struktur sistem administrasi dan birokrasi pemerintahan yang kesemuanya itu sebenarnya kurang tepat atau tidak relefan dengan kebutuhan dan kepentingan negara-negara Dunia Ketiga. Faktor lain ynag tidak kalah pentingnya adalah munculnya pengaruh standar sosial dan ekonomi negara-negara maju terhadap skala gaji, gaya kehidupan elit dan sikap individualitas untuk menumpuk harta kekayaan di negara-negara berkembang. Semua itu seringkali mendorong kelas elit yang berkuasa untuk melakukan aneka tindakan korupsi dan monopoli barang-barang ekonomi bernilai tinggi, terlepas dari apakah mereke menganut sistem pasar bebas atau terpusat. Pada akhirnya penetrasi sikap-sikap, nilai-nilai, dan standar-standar khas negara kaya itu juga menyebabkan timbulnya suatu masalah yang dikenal dengan istilah “pengurasan intelektual antarnegara” (intelectual brain drain), yakni migrasi atau perpindahan tenaga-tenaga profesional dan kaum cendekiawan, di nagara-negara Dunia Ketiga ke negara-negara maju. Jadi, sementara yang melahirkan, membina, dan membiayai mereka adalah negara-negara berkembang, namun yang memetik manfaatnya justru adalah negara-negara maju. Tenaga-tenaga terdidik seperti para dokter, insinyur, ekonomi, ilmuwan, ahli komputer, hingga perawat profesional dari negara-negara Dunia Ketiga hijrah ke negara-negara Dunia Pertama untuk mencari penghidupan dan imbalan yang lebih baik.

Kesimpulan
Fenomena keterbelakangan (underdevelopment) harus ditelaah dalam konteks nasional maupun internasional. Masalah-masalah kemiskinan, produktivitas yang rendah, pertumbuhan penduduk yang berlebihan, pengangguran, ketergantungan pada ekspor komoditi primer, serta rapuhnya negara-negara berkembang di pentas internasional memiliki aspek-aspek domestik sekaligus global, baik ketika kita berbicara tentang asal mula semua masalah tersebut maupun ketika kita membahas potensi-potensi pemecahannya. Oleh karena itu, usaha-usaha penyelkesaian atas masalah keterbelakangan harus melibatkan langkah-langkah domestik sekaligus global. Segenap kekuatan ekonomi dan sosial yang melingkupi negara-negara berkembang, baik yang internal, harus sama-sama memikul tanggung jawab untuk megatasi kemiskinan, ketimpangan ekonomi dan sosial tidak hanya mensyaratkan formulasi strategi yang memadai di pihak negara-negara Dunia Ketiga, tetapi juga memerlukan modifikasi sistem ekonomi internasional secara keseluruhan agar sistem tersebut lebih peka terhadap berbagai kebutuhan pembangunan negara miskin.

Meskipun gambaran kehidupan di banyak negara berkembang dalam pembahasan kita ini nampaknya begitu suran, perlu diingat bahwa banyak pula negara-negara berkembang yang telah berhasil dalam upayanya meningkatkan pendapatan nasional. Menurunkan tingkat kematian bayi, memperbaiki akses pendidikan, serta memperbesar usia harapan hidup. Sebenarnya, melalui penerapan serangkaian kebijakan ekonomi dan politik yang tepat, baik kebijakan dalam negari maupun kebijakan luar negeri, serta dengan suatu dukungan yang benar-benar positif dan efektif dari negara maju, maka negara-negara miskin tersebut akan memiliki sarana dan dukungan yang lebih memadai guna mewujudkan aspirasi-aspirasi pembangunannya
nama file di link ziddu yg banyak dicari
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Aplikasi Wadi’ah Mudharabah

1.Wa'diah
Perbankkan menjadi penting dalam perekonomian Negara karena ia salah satu tempat perputaran uang dan modal. Semakin besar perputaran uang ini diarahkan untuk investasi, semakin besar pengaruh positifnya terhadap tingkat kesejahteraan masyarakat dan ekonomi negara pada umumnya.

A.Pengertian wadi’ah
Wadi’ah atau despository menurut bahasa adalah titipan atau simpanan. Dalam literatur fikih, para ulama berbeda-beda pendapat dalam mendefinisikan wadi’ah disebabkan perbedaan mereka dalam beberapa hukum yang berkenaan dengan wadi’ah tersebut, yaitu perbedaan dalam masalah permberian upah bagi pihak penerima titipan, transaksi ini dikategorikan tawkil atau sekedar menitip, dan barang titipan tersebut harus berupa harta atau tidak.
Diantara definisi wadi’ah adalah “titipan murni dari satu pihak kepihak lain, baik individu maupun badan hukum, yang harus dijaga dan dikembalikan kapan saja penitip menghendaki”.
Jika sebagian kamu mempercayai sebagian yang lain, hendaklah yang dipercaya itu menunaikan amanat (utangnya) dan hendaknya ia bertakwa kepada allah tuhannya.
Sesungguhnya Allah menyuruh kamu menyampaikan amanat kepada yang berhak menerimanya, dan (menyuruh kamu) apabila menetapkan hukum di antara manusia supaya kamu menetapkan dengan adil. Sesungguhnya Allah memberi pengajaran yang sebaik-baiknya kepadamu. Sesungguhnya Allah adalah Maha mendengar lagi Maha Melihat.
Ayat ini turun berkenaan dengan tanggung jawab memegang kunci ka’bah. Tugas menjaga kunci ka’bah ini kemudian diserahkan kembali kepada ustman binthalhah. Ayat ini secara tegas menyuruh untuk menunaikan setiap amanat, termsuk didalam menjaga titipan orang lain
Dalam hadis abu huraira ra. Meriwayatkan bahwa rasulullah saw. Bersabda, “sampaikanlah amanat kepada yang berhak menerimanya dan janganlah membalas khianat kepada orang yang telah mengkhianatimu”. (HR. Abu Dawud, dan Menurut Turmudzi).
Menurut ijma’ para ulama sudah sepakat bahwa wadi’ah (titipan) itu dibolehkan, baik menitip barang atau menerima titipan. Hal ini sesuai dengan tuntutan kehidupan manusia yang tidak bisa menjaga sendiri seluruh harta miliknya.
Kaidah-kaidah umum wadi’ah
Kaidah-kaidah itu antara lain:
1)Wadi’ah adalah akad amanah
Para ulama sepakat jika penerimaan simpanan adalah yad amanah (pihak yang memegang amanah. Artinya : ia tidak bertanggung jawab atas kehilangan atau kerusakan yang terjadi pada aset titipan selama hal ini bukan akibat dari kelalaian dalam memelihara titipan, tetapi lebih karena faktor-faktor diluar batas kemampuan.
2)Wadi’ah adalah akad wakalah
Transaksi wadi’ah termasuk akad wakalah yaitu, penititpan aset mewakili kepada penerimaan titipan atau menjaganya. Ia tidak dibolehkan untuk memanfaatkannya barang tersebut untuk keperluan pribadi, baik keperluan konsumif maupun produktif, karena itu adalah pelanggaran terhadap akad wadi’ah, sebab barang masih menjadi milik mudi. Jika wadi menggunakan barang tersebut, maka ia menjamin untuk mengembalikan barang tersebut. Dengan demikian, akad tersebut telah berubah dari akad wadi’ah menjadi al-qard (kredit.

B.Perbedaan wadi’ah dengan al-qard dan al-iddikhar
1.Al-Qardh
Adalah pemberian harta atas dasar sosial untuk dimanfaatkan dan harus di bayar dengan sejenisnya. Dalam akad wadi’ah pemberian jasa adalah wadi’, sedangkan dalam akad al-qardh pemberian jasa itu adalah muqridh (pemberian pinjaman)
Perbedaan dalam al-qrdh, yad muqtaridh (kepemilikan penerima piutang) adalah yad dhaman (tangan penjamin). Sedangkan dalam wadi’ah, yad wadi’ adalah yad amanah atau hanya memegang amanah, tidak menjamin.
2.Al-iddikhar
Al-iddikhar atau sering dikenal dengan istilah menabung adalah menyisihkan sebagian dari pemasukan untuk disimpan dengan tujuan untuk di investasikan. Al-iddikar mempunyai kesamaan dengan wadi’ah. Kedua-duanya adalah harta yang disimpan. Bedanya adalah tabungan bisa disimpan oleh pemiliknya atau diserahkan kepada orang lain, sedangkan wadi’ah adalah menyerahkan harta kepada orang lain untuk dijaga.
C.Aplikasi wadi’ah dalam perbankan
Bagi bank konvensional, selain modal, sumber dana lainnya cenderung manahan uang. Ini sesuai dengan pendekatan keynes yang mengemukakan bahwa orang membutuhkan uang untuk tiga kegunaan,: transaksi, cadangan, dan investasi. Oleh karena itu, produk penghimpunan danapun disesuaikan dengan tiga fungsi tersebut, yaitu berupa giro, tabungan, dan diposito. Dalam bank syariah adalah pendekatan tunggal dalam menyediakan produk penghimpunan dana bagi nasabahnya. Misalnya pada tabungan, beberapa bank memberlakukan seperti giro, ada pula yang memberlakukan seperti deposito. Bahkan ada yang tidak menyediakan tabungan sama sekali. Dalam perbankan syariah, mekanisme penyertaan modal pemegang saham dapat dilakukan melalui musyarakah fi sahm al-syarikah (equity participation, ikut serta dalam penanaman saham), pada saham perseroan bank.
Sebagai modal terbesar bank islam, wadi’ah meliputi dua bagian
1.wadi’ah jariyah/tahta thalab, yaitu suatu titipan yang penyimpan berhak mengambil kapan saja baik cash maupun dengan cek ataupun melalui puhak ketiga.
2.wadi’ah addikhriyah/al-taufir, ciri-ciri simpanan ini adalah kecilnya simpanan dan banyaknya jumlah nasabah penyimpan dan bank menyalurkannya untuk investasi dengan akad mudharabah muthlaqah. Dua jenis simpanan ini pada prakteknya bank memanfaatkannya untuk keperluan investasi dan mengembalikan simpanan Download disini. Aplikasi Wadi’ah Mudharabah Perbankkan perekonomian ekonomi
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Recognizing And Making Critical Judgement

Recognizing And Making Critical Judgement


Discussion and Examples

Making critical judgement implies an attempt at objective judging so as to determine both merits and faults. Critical reading is thoughtful reading because it requires that the reader recognize not only what is being said at the literal level but also facts, opinions, attitudes, inferences, and bias.

You show good judgment – or lack of it – through the kinds of facts and opinion.
Knowingly or unknowingly, you make critical judgement all the time from deciding on the type of toothpaste to buy to choosing a topic for an English theme. The trick is to always be aware of your critical judgements and to know the reasoning behind your decision.
Further you must be aware of the judgement the author is making and you must also be aware of the judgment you make based on your own bias about the subject.
To evaluate or to judge what you read you must attempt to answer such questions as these:
- Is the author telling the truth as far as he knows it?
- Does he know the truth?
- Is he prejudiced?
- Does he have an ax to grind?
- What are his ideas and claims worth to me?
In the following paragraphs some standards of evaluation are discussed.

A One-Side Presentation of Details.
Next let us evaluate two paragraphs making use of particulars and details in support of an argument.
Much of this masculine point of view or course is due to the fact that man is giving to vain (if sometimes glorious) imaginings, whereas woman is realistic. I utter nothing new or revolutionary in saying this. For confirmation of the truism that imagination is peculiarly masculine, one need only recall that all the fairy tales of the world have been, and continue to be, written by men. I give you Hans Christian Andersen, the Brothers Grimm, Andrew Lang, Homer, Virgil, the s spinner of Scheherazade's adventures, the Arab storyteller in the market place, the Indian creator of mythology, the ancient Hebrews who accounted for the beginnings of life. At the same time, masculine imagination creates the Casper Milquetoasts of the -world. They people life with terrors of their own devising and then become frightened by their own creations; they deteat themselves before ever getting a start.
Anonymous proved his claim that men are imaginative, women realistic? It seems so. But waitl Here is a paragraph taking the view:
I just don't understand this man. He says men are imaginative, are realistic. "For confirmation of this truism," he says, "I give you Hans Christian Andersen, the Brothers Grimm, Andrew Lang, Virgil, and the nameless spinner of Scheherazade's adventures" O.K., Anymous, two can play at gift giving. 1 give you Marie de France, the Sisters Bronte, Beatrix Potter, Selma Lagerlof, lady, Laura E,, Richards, Helen Bannerman, Lily F. Wessethoeft, and Beatrice Lillie. No, on second though I think I’ll keep Betrice Lillie. You don’t deserve her, and I doubt if you could manage her.
You see E.B. White gives us some details that Anonymous has left so you can see that Anonymous's argument is not worth what it seemed to be.
These paragraphs by aninonymous and E.B. White illustrate the difficulty you may have in evaluating an argument supported by particulars and details. It you are not familiar with a given subject, you may easily be misled by a one-sided presentation of details. The will appear logical to you because you do not know that supporting an opposing argument have been left out.
How can you cope intelligently with this difficulty? How can you whether opposing details have not been presented? These are not questions to answer, for the truth about many problems is hard to find out, even here in the United States, where, normally, we are free from censorship. One thing you can do is to seek deliberately for opposing arguments. If you are in the habit of reading only one, find some magazine with a different editorial policy and read it too. Read newspapers and books written from different points of view Another thing you can do is to keep an open mind. Remember, not seemingly plausible argument is sound.

Misleading Comparison
Let us examine a selection in which a conclusion is reached by paring one animal with another. What is your evaluation of the result?
The cat is a stupid animal, incapable of learning any tricks. Whoever heard of a cat who would play dead or shake hands?
The dog, on the other hand, is quick to learn. He can be taught to beg, to shake hands, to fetch his master's slippers, and to guard, even with his own 1ife, his master's child.
The cat is stubborn; she does as she pleases. If a child tries to play with her and she wants to sleep, she scratches the child and runs away.
But a dog is obedient and dog's ears are sensitive), 'only that baby love him and pat on the head.
The cat is selfish and lacking in affection. She prefers being left in a cozy spot by the fire to being petted and played with.
But the dog is most loving. He lives, not by meat alone, but by the affection caresses of his master. Dogs have been known to refuse food and even to die when a beloved master has left them.
Clearly, the dog is a much better pet than the cat.
If you don't know cats or dogs, this selection may soi.uzd logical. But before you accept the conclusion that the dog is a better pet than the cat, read the following selection:
The dog is filthy fellow. He litters the dooryard with bones, old shoes, and other things he drags in. He wades through mud but protests when he is given a bath.
The cat, however, is clean. She never litters the house or the lawn, and she constantly washes herself, thus keeping her coat glossy and beautiful.
The dog appears more intelligent than he is because he aims to please. By patience, repetition, and praise, his master can teach him to perform many tricks. And if the dog is given food as a reward, he will learn more quickly than otherwise.
But the cat is shrewd. She knows how to get what she wants. A Persian cat once learned to pretend that she wanted to be let outside in order to get her mistress out of bed. But when Miss Green got up, Pussy always went straight to the refrigerator, where the food was kept.
The cat, though affectionate (how she loves to be stroked), is independent. She is a free animal and will not cringe or fawn for favors.
But the dog is servile. Whip him, and he comes crawling like a slave. Truly, the cat, unlike the dog, is a noble animal, one worthy of respect.
Now you can see that, like the method of supporting a statement by details, the method of comparison and contrast may be misleading if important details are left out. In the two selections concerning the dog and the cat, neither has made use of false of details; yet, as a whole, each selection is misleading and false.

The Method of Repetition
Repetition of a slogan is a method of advertising which calls for alertness rather than for evaluation. It is used without supporting evidence and may give the reader or listener no opportunity for thought. The way in which it may mislead us is insidious; it works subtly. The first time we hear the refrain "that Rosebud look" and we are told that we can have it "in just ten days" we may laugh. After we have heard it a hundred times, it may sink into our subconscious, and we may find ourselves thinking that the use of Rosebud soap really will give us a beautiful, rose-petal-soft skin.
And so it goes with a dozen other slogans, ''the prevention lotion," "not a sore throat in a train load," "they thrill,” “she’s engaged she uses wonder cr√®me” – after we have heard them along enough, we may believe them.

Faulty Cause-to-Effect Reasoning
Another thing to watch for as you read is faulty cause-to-effect reasoning. A common difficulty in cause-to-effect reasoning is distinguishing between a true cause of an event or condition and samething which merely went before that event or condition.

Example I
On my way to the grocery. I saw a black cat. On my way home, I dropped a dozen eggs. Did the black cat cause me to drop the eggs? Well, on my trip to the grocery, I saw other things besides the black cat: a bed of yellow jonquils, a brilliant cardinal and his reddish brown mate, a wriggling puppy, a curly-headed baby holding onto his mother's hand. Why, then, should I say that, out of all the things I saw, the black cat brought me my bad luck? Very likely it was my own carelessness which was responsible.

Example 2
I had a cold last week. I went to bed, took aspirin and soda. In four days the cold was practically gone. Did the aspirin and soda cure it? Or the bed rest? If you ask your doctor, he'l1 probably tell you that many colds get better in four days' time, no matter what remedies are used or not used. So, you see, an event or condition is not necessarily caused by an event or condition immediately preceding it.
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Pendekatan Sistem Dalam Desain Pembelajaran

Pendekatan Sistem Dalam Desain Pembelajaran


1.Pengertian Pendekatan Sistem
Istilah sistem meliputi spektrum konsep yang sangat luas. Sebagai misal, seorang manusia, organisasi, mobil, susunan tata surya merupakan sistem dan masih banyak lagi. Semua contoh tersebut memiliki batasan sendiri-sendiri yang satu sama lain berbeda. Meskipun demikian terdapat kesamaan dari segi prosesnya dalam hal ini terdapat masukan dan menghasilkan keluaran. Itulah sebabnya pengertian sistem tidak lain adalah suatu kesamaan unsur-unsur yang saling berinteraksi secara fungsional yang memperoleh masukan menjadi keluaran.

Kesamaan lain dapat dilihat melalui ciri-cirinya sebagaimana dikemukakan dan digambarkan dalam literatur pembelajaran yang antara lain disebutkan dalam buku akta mengajar V (Depdikbud, 1984) yang meliputi:
a.Adanya tujuan
b.Adanya fungsi untuk mencapai tujuan
c.Ada bagian komponen yang melaksanakan fungsi-fungsi tersebut
d.Adanya interaksi antara komponen atau saling hubungan
e.Adanya penggabungan yang menimbulkan jalinan keterpaduan
f.Adanya proses transformasi
g.Adanya proses umpan ballik untuk perbaikan
h.Adanya daerah batasan dan lingkungan
Pendekatan sistem pembelajaran dapat diartikan sebagai titik tolak atau sudut pandang kita terhadap proses pembelajaran, yang merujuk pada pandangan tentang terjadinya suatu proses yang sifatnya masih sangat dalamnya mewadahi, menginspirasi, menguatkan dan melatari metode pembelajaran dengan cakupan tertentu. Dilihat dari pendekatannya, pembelajaran terdapat dua jenis pendekatan, yaitu:
1.Pendekatan pembelajaran yang berorientasi atau berpusat pada siswa (student centered approach)
2.Pendekatan pembelajaran yang berorientasi atau berpusat pada guru (teacher centered approach)

Dari pendekatan pembelajaran yang telah ditetapkan selanjutnay diturunkan ke dalam strategi pembelajaran dan Logan (Abin Syamsuddin Makmun, 2003) mengemukakan empat unsur strategi dari setiap usaha, yaitu:
1.Mengidentifikasi dan menetapkan spesifikasi dan kualifikasi hasil (out put) dan sasaran (target) yang harus mempertimbangkan aspirasi dan selera masyarakat yang memerlukannya
2.Mempertimbangkan dan memilih jalan pendekatan utama (basic way) yang paling efektif untuk mencapai tujuan
3.Mempertimbangkan dan menetapkan langkah-langkah (steps) yang akan ditempuh sejak titik awal sampai mencapai sasaran
4.Mempertimbangkan dan menetapkan tolok ukur (criteria) dan patokan ukuran (standard) untuk mengetahui/menilai taraf keberhasilan (achievement) usaha

Jika kita terapkan dalam konteks pembelajaran, keempat unsur tersebut adalah:
1.Menetapkan spesifikasi dan kualifikasi tujuan pembelajaran yakni perubahan profil perilaku dan pribadi anak didik
2.Mempertimbangkan dan memilih sistem pendekatan pembelajaran yang dipandang paling efektif
3.Mempertimbangkan dan menetapkan langkah-langkah atau prosedur, metode dan tekhnik pembelajaran
4.Menetapkan norma-norma dan batas minimum ukuran keberhasilah atau kriteria dan ukuran baku keberhasilan.

2.Pendekatan Sistem adalah Mendesain Pembelajaran
Seorang guru harus bisa menciptakan suasana pembelajaran aktif, kreatif, efektif dan menyenangkan.
Aktif dimaksudkan bahwa dalam proses pembelajaran guru harus menciptakan suasana sedemikain rupa sehingga siswa aktif bertanya, mempertanyakan dan mengemukakan gagasan. Belajar memang merupakan suatu proses aktif dari si pembelajar dalam membangun pengetahuannya, bukan proses pasif yang hanya menerima kucuran ceramah guru tentang pengetahuan. Sehingga, jika pembelajaran tidak memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk berperan aktif, maka pembelajaran tersebut bertentangan dengan hakikat belajar. Peran aktif dari siswa sangat penting dalam rangka pembentukan generasi yang kreatif, yang mampu menghasilkan sesuatu untuk kepentingan dirinya dan orang lain. Kreatif juga dimaksudkan agar guru menciptakan kegiatan belajar yang beragam sehingga memenuhi berbagai tingkat kemampuan siswa. Menyenangkan adalah suasana belajar mengajar yang menyenangkan sehingga siswa memusatkan perhatiannya secara penuh pada belajar sehingga waktu curah perhatiannya tinggi. Menurut hasil penelitian, tingginya waktu curah terbukti meningkatkan hasil belajar. Keadaan aktif dan menyenangkan tidaklah cukup jika proses pembelajaran tidak efektif, yaitu tidak menghasilkan apa yang harus dikuasai siswa setelah proses pembelajaran berlangsung, sebab pembelajaran memiliki sejumlah tujuan pembelajaran yang harus dicapai. Jika pembelajaran hanya aktif dan menyenangkan tetapi tidak efektif, maka pembelajaran tersebut tak ubahnya seperti bermain biasa.
Secara garis besar, gambaran PAKEM adalah sebagai berikut:
Siswa terlibat dalam berbagai kegiatan yang mengembangkan pemahaman dan kemampuan mereka dengan penekanan pada belajar melalui berbuat.

1.Guru menggunakan berbagai alat bantu dan cara membangkitkan semangat, termasuk menggunakan lingkungan sebagai sumber belajar untuk menjadikan pembelajaran menarik, menyenangkan dan cocok bagi siswa
2.Guru mengatur kelas dengan memajang buku-buku dan bahan belajar yang lebih menarik dan menyediakan ‘pojok baca’
3.Guru menerapkan cara mengajar yang lebih kooperatif dan interaktif, termasuk cara belajar kelompok
4.Guru mendorong siswa untuk menemukan caranya sendiri dalam pemecahan suatu masalah, untuk mengungkapkan gagasannya dan melibatkan siswa dalam menciptakan lingkungan sekolahnya

a.Apa yang harus diperhatikan dalam melaksanakan PAKEM?
1.Memahami sifat yang dimiliki anak
Pada dasarnya anak memiliki sifat: rasa ingin tahu dan berimajinasi. Anak desa, anak kota, anak orang kaya, anak orang miskin, anak Indonesia atau anak bukan Indonesia – selama mereka normal – terlahir memiliki kedua sifat itu. Kedua sifat tersebut merupakan modal dasar bagi berkembangnya kedua sifat, anugerah Tuhan tersebut. Suasana pembelajaran dimana guru memuji anak karena hasil karyanya, guru mengajukan pertanyaan yang menantang dan guru yang mendorong anak untuk melakukan percobaan, misalnya merupakan pembelajaran yang subur seperti yang dimaksud.

2.Mengenal anak secara perorangan
Para siswa berasal dari lingkungan keluarga yang bervariasi dan memiliki kemampuan yang berbeda. Dalam PAKEM (Pembelajaran Aktif, Menyenangkan dan Efektif) perbedaan individual perlu diperhatikan dan harus tercermin dalam kegiatan pembelajaran. Semua anak dalam kelas tidak selalu mengerjakan kegiatan yang sama, melainkan berbeda sesuai dengan kecepatan belajarnya. Anak-anak yang memiliki kemampuan lebih dapat dimanfaatkan untuk membantu temannya yang lemah (tutor sebaya). Dengan mengenal kemampuan anak, kita dapat membantunya bila mendapat kesulitan sehingga belajar anak tersebut menjadi optimal.

3.Memanfaatkan perilaku anak dalam pengorganisasian belajar
Sebagai makhluk sosial, anak sejak kecil secara alami bermain berpasangan atau berkelompok dalam bermain. Perilaku ini dapat dimanfaatkan dalam pengorganisasian belajar. Dalam melakukan tugas atau membahas sesuatu, anak dapat bekerja berpasangan atau dalam kelompok. Berdasarkan pengalaman, anak akan menyelesaikan tugas dengan baik bila mereka duduk berkelompok. Duduk seperti ini memudahkan mereka untuk berinteraksi dan bertukar pikiran. Namun demikian, anak perlu juga menyelesaikan tugas secara perorangan agar bakat individunya berkembang.

4.Mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir kritis, kreatif dan kemampuan memecahkan masalah
Pada dasarnya hidup ini adalah memecahkan masalah. Hal ini memerlukan kemampuan berfikir kritis dan kreatif. Kritis untuk menganalisis masalah dan kreatif untuk melahirkan alternatif pemecahan masalah. Kedua jenis berpikir tersebut, kritis dan kreatif berasal dari rasa ingin tahu dan imajinasi yang keduanya ada pada diri anak sejak lahir. Oleh karena itu, tugas guru adalah mengembangkannya, antara lain dengan sering-sering memberikan tugas atau mengajukan pertanyaan yang terbuka. Pertanyaan yang dimulai dengan kata-kata “Apa yang terjadi jika ...” lebih baik daripada yang dimulai dengan kata-kata “Apa, berapa, kapan”, yang umumnya tertutup (jawaban betul hanya satu).

5.Mengembangkan ruang kelas sebagai lingkungan belajar yang menarik
Ruang kelas yang menarik merupakan hal yang sangat disarankan dalam PAKEM. Hasil pekerjaan siswa sebaiknya dipajangkan untuk memenuhi ruang kelas seperti itu. Selain itu, hasil pekerjaan yang pajangkan diharapkan memotivasi siswa untuk bekerja lebih baik dan menimbulkan inspirasi bagi siswa lain. Yang dipajangkan dapat berupa hasil kerja perorangan, berpasangan atau kelompok. Pajangan dapat berupa gambar, peta, diagram, model, benda asli, puisi, karangan dan sebagainya. Ruang kelas yang penuh dengan pajangan hasil pekerjaan siswa dan ditata dengan baik, dapat membantu guru dalam pembelajaran karena dapat dijadikan rujukan ketika membahas suatu masalah.

6.Memanfaatkan lingkungan sebagai sumber belajar
Lingkungan (fisik, sosial atau budaya) merupakan sumber yang sangat kaya untuk bahan belajar anak. Lingkungan dapat berperan sebagai media belajar, tetapi juga sebagai objek kajian (sumber belajar). Penggunaan lingkungan sebagai sumber belajar sering membuat anak merasa senang dalam belajar. Belajar dengan menggunakan lingkungan tidak selalu harus keluar kelas. Bahan dari lingkungan dapat dibawa ke ruang kelas untuk menghemat biaya dan waktu. Pemanfaatan lingkungan dapat mengembangkan sejumlah keterampilan seperti mengamati (dengan seluruh indera), mencatat, merumuskan pertanyaan, berhipotesis, mengklasifikasi, membuat tulisan dan membuat gambar/diagram.

7.Memberi umpan balik yang baik untuk meningkatkan kegiatan belajar
Mutu hasil belajar akan meningkat bila terjadi interaksi dalam belajar. Pemberian umpan balik dari guru kepada siswa merupakan salah satu bentuk interaksi antara guru dan siswa. Umpan balik hendaknya lebih mengungkap kekuatan daripada kelemahan siswa. Selain itu, cara memberikan umpan balik pun harus secara santun. Hal ini dimaksudkan agar siswa lebih percaya diri dalam menghadapi tugas-tugas belajar selnjutnya. Guru harus konsisten memeriksa hasil pekerjaan siswa dan memberikan komentar dan catatan. Catatan guru berkaitan dengan pekerjaan siswa lebih bermakna bagi pengembangan diri siswa daripada hanya sekedar angka.

8.Membedakan antara fisik dan aktif mental
Banyak guru yang sudah merasa puas bila menyaksikan para siswa kelihatan sibuk bekerja dan bergerak. Apalagi jika bangku dan meja diatur berkelompok serta siswa duduk saling berhadapann. Keadaan tersebut bukanlah ciri yang sebenarnya dari PAKEM. Aktif mental lebih diinginkan daripada aktif fisik. Sering bertanya, mempertanyakan gagasan orang lain dan mengungkapkan gagasan merupakan tanda-tanda aktif mental. Syarat berkembangnya aktif mental adalah tumbuhnya perasaan tidak takut; takut ditertawakan, takut disepelekan atau takut dimarahi jika salah. Oleh karena itu, guru hendaknya menghilangkan penyebab rasa takut tersebut, baik yang datang dari guru itu sendiri maupun dari temannya.
Pendekatan Sistem Dalam Desain Pembelajaran
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