Basic Concepts Work Safety And Health


Occupational safety and health difilosofikan as a thought and effort to ensure the integrity and perfection of both physical and spiritual labor in particular and mankind in general, and cultural work towards a prosperous and prosperous society. While understanding the science is a science and its application in udaha prevent the possibility of accidents and illness due to work. Occupational health and safety (K3) can not be separated with both production processes and industrial services. Of development after Indonesia's independence led to the consequences of increasing the intensity of work also resulted in increased risk of accidents in the workplace. It would also result in increased demand for higher prevent accidents in the various forms and types of accident. Accordingly, the development progress is then implemented Law No. 14 of 1969 the main frame of the next labor changes to Law No. 12 of 2003 on labor.
In article 86 of Law No. 13 in 2003, stated that any work or labor has the right to the protection of occupational health and safety, morals and ethics and treatment in accordance with the dignity and religious values.


A. Prevention is the most effective
Two of the biggest things is the cause of working kecelakanaan namely unsafe behaviors and environmental conditions are not safe, according to data from the Bureau of Manpower Training, the cause of the accident had occurred so far are caused by unsafe behavior as follows:
1. Careless and imprudent
2. Does not comply with peratutan
3. Did not follow standard work procedures
4. Do not use self protection devices
5. The condition of weak entity
The percentage of occupational accidents causing 3% due to the cause can not be avoided (such as natural disasters), but it was 24% due to environmental or equipment that do not qualify and 73% due to unsafe behavior. Effective way to prevent accidents is to avoid the occurrence of five unsafe behavior mentioned above.

B. Type of Accident In Some Industrial Sector
Manufacturing (including electronics, metal production, etc.)
1. Squeezed, oppressed
2. Cut, cut
3. Fall slip
4. Improper act
5. Hit
6. Contact with hazardous wok
7. Fell, rolled
8. Fall of goods from the
9. Strong impact
10. Affected goods collapsed, collapse
Electronics (Manufacturing)
1. Cut, cut
2. Crushed, run over
3. Contact with chemicals
4. Gas leak
5. The decreasing of the hearing, eyesight

Metal Production (Manufacturing)
1. Squeezed, crushed
2. Punctured, cut, cut
3. Fall, slip

Petrochemical (oil and coal production, rubber production, rubber production, plastics production)
1. Squeezed, crushed
2. Cut, cut, cut
3. Fall slip
4. Improper act
5. Hit
6. Strong impact

1. Fall slip
2. Fall of goods from the
3. Stepped
4. Affected goods collapsed, collapse
5. Exposed to hot temperatures, cold temperatures
6. Fall, tumble
7. Squeezed, crushed
8. Hit
9. Improper act
10. Strong impact
Production of transportation equipment repair field
1. Squeezed, oppressed
2. Punctured, cut, cut
3. Blast

C. Education Safety and Health
The goal of education health and safety is to prevent the accident, an effective way to prevent accidents is taking appropriate measures for labor and equipment, so that workers have the concept of occupational health and safety to prevent accidents.
Destination occupational health and safety to protect health workers, improve working efficiency, prevent the occurrence of occupational accidents and diseases.
Various safety and health at work
1. Anticipating the existence of the factors causing the danger and to take reasonable precautions before.
2. Understanding the types of hazards in the workplace.
3. Evaluating the level of danger in the workplace.
4. Controlling the occurrence of danger or complications.

Regulations concerning safety and health of workers who primarily safety and health law labor law and the detailed implementation of safety and health of workers.
Factors that cause common hazardous
1. Types of chemical hazards: inhalation or skin of contact between the liquid metal, liquid non-metal, hydrocarbons and ash, gas, steam steam, smoke and poisonous dew.
2. Hazards of physics: an environment hot and cold temperature, environment radiating ionizing and non ionizing, noise, vibration and air pressure is not normal.
3. Human danger because of the project: lighting and lighting that is less, the danger of transport, and the danger posed by the equipment.

How to control the threat of health hazards
1. Control techniques: changing work procedures, closing isolating hazardous materials, using automation work, using wet workings and ventilation air changes.
2. Administrative control: reducing the exposure time, arrange health and safety rules, wearing protective equipment, installing warning signs, make a list of materials data is safe, doing emergency training penangganan system.
3. Monitoring health: health checks

Why it is necessary to health and safety education work?
According to H. W. Heinrich, cause of work accidents are common unsafe behavior of 88%, environmental conditions are not safe for 10%, or both of the above occur simultaneously. Therefore, the implementation of safety training and health workers can prevent unsafe behavior and improve the environmental conditions are not safe.
For training purposes workforce have the knowledge and ability to prevent occupational accidents, developed the concept and habit of the importance of safety and health, to understand that there are dangers in the workplace and uses workplace accident prevention measures. Regulations that need to be obeyed Act Occupational Safety and Health arranged for labor, worker health and safety and training managers must follow safety and health. Object of education and training of work safety and health:
1. Officer safety and health
2. The manager of the operational safety and health
3. Machine operators and equipment is dangerous
4. Special operators
5. General operators
6. Officer examiners working environment conditions
7. Estimate of construction safety officer
8. Officers estimate the safety of production processes
9. Rescue
10. New labor or before labor get a job rotation.

Schedule and content of training programs tailored training objects with rules regarding the schedule and content of training programs. Principle analysis of occupational safety and health for the cause of all the layers, common layer to the basic cause, fully searchable, so it can be seen the core causes and make improvements.
Accident prevention work to prevent accidents, prior to beginning the introduction of hazards in the workplace, estimation, three-step control, in recognition of the danger to the confirmation
existence of hazards in the workplace, decide the influence of danger; in estimating there are known dangers to workers under threat of exposure or possible exposure, confirm whether exposure levels in accordance with the rules, understand the control equipment or whether the management measures according to the requirements; in controlling hazards need to be done controlling the source of danger, the danger of control lines, the additional control of exposure labor, establish security procedures.
Action handling after kecelakaan employment on Labor Protection Law and Accident Compensation, business owners at the start of labor use, should help workers to apply for employment insurance participation, to ensure workplace safety tenga. In addition, after a work accident, business owners must provide subsidies accident, when business owners do not sign up workforce participating labor insurance in accordance with the Employment Standards Act, the business owner will be fined.

D. Data Safety and Health in Industrial Electronics
a. Electronics Industry Characteristics
Characteristics of the electronic industry is operating the machinery or equipment with greater energy, machinery or equipment can operate automatically or semi-automatic or operated by using corrosive chemicals. Occupational accidents that occurred divided into 3 risk groups, namely: chemical hazards, physical hazards and ergonomic hazards.
1. Chemical hazards: inhalation or skin contact with liquid metal, liquid non-metal, hydrocarbons, dust, vapor steam, smoke, toxic gases and moisture.
2. Physical Hazards: temperature extremes of hot environments cool, non-ionizing radiation and ionizing, noise, vibration and air pressure is not normal.
3. Ergonomic hazards: hazards due to lack of lighting, work transportation and equipment.

b. Case Analysis
Eleltronik industrial equipment mostly high voltage electricity, which caused the accident rate is different. From the selected sample cases below, a lot of accidents resulting in death was trapped and crushed. Other types of accidents can also cause serious accidents. With the example case below is expected to make business owners and workers understand the importance of occupational safety and health. Three stages cause of the accident which will be analyzed:
1. Common cause: the main cause of accidents resulting in occupational safety and health.
2. Causes detail: the causes leading to the common cause.
3. Main cause of: the most basic causes leading to accidents.

After each stage of the causes described, will be given an additional explanation about the environmental conditions are not safe and unsafe behavior.
 Unsafe environment: business owners do not provide the equipment and safe procedures for working environment, work schedules are not appropriate, and training of occupational safety and health is not efficient, and so forth.
 Behavior that is not work safe: a consequence of the absence of safety culture and health, workers who do not comply with applicable procedures, and the attitude of the heart lack of attention in the work.

Classification on the outline done, in some situations can occur at the same accident, based on the point of discussion could produce different things, so that the flexible scope.
The last section is given some strategies to improve the situation improved quality of working environment and increase productivity.

c. Pinch Crushed
Case Title: Death that occurs because the carrier machine crushed raw material storage area melanism. Operators Female, 25 years, 1.5 years work experience working task in to add a liquid drug reservoirs melanism time in May of X at about 5 pm the scene of the production line equipment or object that caused the accident carriers machines raw materials, machinery stanchion carrying the sequence of events.
On a day around 4:30-5:00 pm, a manager of an electronics company production was on an inspection tour in melanism production line, everything went normal. In the evening hours of 9:20, when he conducted an inspection again, through the front door looks the production line workers have melanism reservoirs sandwiched between the basic raw material delivery machine and the pole, his face
leads to drug liquid bath, through the operation of the machine, he eventually can be moved and taken to the hospital to get help, 1 hour later the victim died. Melanism production lines in length 11 meters, 2.1 meters wide. Equipment used is a machine that works automatically, the line consists of bath water washing, acid washing tub, melanism reservoirs and other tub.
Along the right side and left there like a pole 10 x 10 cm every 2 meters distance. Walking path made against the pole with a distance of 1.8 meters from the floor and raw material delivery machine operating in the running lane.

Common Cause
1. Production line does not have security isolation equipment (figure 2.2). (unsafe environment)
2. No help or supervise the workers, the whole point there is only a worker who works alone.
3. There is no safety and health supervisor who did the inspection work. (unsafe environment).
4. Does not provide safety training and health to workers, knowledge workers will be safety and health is still lacking. (unsafe behavior).
5. No set rules safety and health in order to be obeyed by the workers. (unsafe behavior). Causes detailed 1. Business owners do not provide safety equipment and adequate health. (unsafe environment).
 Provision of a lack of manpower made it impossible to work 2 people working together. (unsafe environment).
 The company is not large (small amount of labor) that does not meet the regulatory supervision of the establishment of occupational health and safety and the lack of oversight in the workplace. (unsafe environment).
 The company ignored the importance of training health and safety and do not provide track information relating to occupational safety and health. (unsafe environment).

Main Causes
1. The Company does not have the manpower allocation planning is detailed in each section. (An unsafe environment).
2. Knowledge of the importance of occupational health and safety at the company is not sufficient. (environmental and unsafe behavior).

Control Strategy
1. Officers formed part of occupational health and safety and to check equipment and routine operation.
2. Workers are required to follow safety and health training and include examples of work this case as subject matter, knowledge workers will increase the safety and health in order to prevent the recurrence of similar accidents.
3. Establish safety rules and appropriate health and escaped censorship by the relevant agencies feasibility, and then announced and implemented mandatory.
4. Part of occupational safety and health training and perform inspections in strict working procedures.
5. Planning manpower allocation.
6. Making safety devices and equipment insulation otomastis stopping in an emergency, etc., so that workers have protective equipment.

Pinch crushed
Case Title: Deaths due to squeezed vacuum the bottom sheet when the switching machine operators operate a deputy supervisor surnamed Shen and a technician named Cien Duty 2 people working the switching engine to operate at the same sheet, using a knife to cut the copper sheet in July in time about an hour X 6:40 pm the scene of the production line equipment or objects that caused the accident which hampered knife, suction device on the copper sheet
mover machine sheet sequence of events in an IT company (Industry and Technology), a technician named Cien which was originally located in the coating of glue, on a night to operate the transfer sheet together with an assistant engineer surnamed Chai. Around 06:40 hours, Shen deputy superintendent engineer (the victim surnamed Shen) transfer working Chai assistant engineer to check the sheet, then deputy superintendent was to operate the sheet mover with this technician.
Within tens of minutes, they cut more than 20 pieces of copper, about 7 hours they use knives to cut the copper sheet, simultaneously hampered at the bottom of copper sheet (the reason may be due to hampered cutting corners or blade has a blunt, a knife about about 70-80 pieces of cut copper, after which it must be replaced with a new blade, if not then the knives will be hampered in the bottom of copper sheet having a blunt).
Cien technicians pulled the knife and started cutting the copper sheet again, deputy superintendent Shen knife may be too late, but it was because he had put a nylon cord to the hole and drive the automatic lift, because they want to save time, she put her head under vacuum tool to install knife, finally his head stuck in the bottom tool suction sheet forklift moving down to take 13ke copper sheet (figure 2.3). Because the new Cien technicians moved to the 3-day working area of the switching machine, he did not master the workings of these machines, so that at the time immediately called for assistance of other workers to operate the transfer sheet and help supervisors Shen representatives, but representatives of the supervisory pulse had stopped breathing and broken lines. Stages common cause causes Description
1. On the sheet forklift accidents are not easily installed means of isolation precautions to separate the workers approached the machine. (unsafe environment).
2. Knife hampered by machines and can not be immediately released. (unsafe environment).
3. Emergency button does not appear prominently, so that technicians could not immediately Cien pressing the button to stop the machine. (unsafe environment).
4. Deputy superintendent has the wrong view of occupational health and safety, making machines that had become semi-automatic and automatic operation of the body near the machine area. (unsafe behavior).

Detailed Causes
1. Business owners do not provide safety and health are adequate. (unsafe environment).
2. The blunt knife very easily hindered, does not require equipment providers to redesign how machines work. (unsafe environment).
3. Supervisors in automated production lines did not stop the unsafe behavior of representatives supervisor Shen. (unsafe environment).

Main Causes
1. The Company does not install insulation equipment where accidents happen easily. (unsafe environment)
2. The Company does not have a policy requiring the job to work in accordance with work procedures or equipment repair. (unsafe behavior).
3. The Company has no knowledge of the importance of occupational safety and health and adequate training. (environmental and unsafe behavior).

1. It really runs the supervision of work, eliminate the causes of unsafe behavior and unsafe environment.
2. Provide education and training of occupational health and safety in the field of work is needed to pekerjaa. And put this case in the subject matter, in order to increase knowledge of work safety and health will work to prevent similar accidents
3. Establish safety rules and appropriate health and escaped censorship by the relevant agencies feasibility, and then announced and implemented mandatory.
4. Part of occupational safety and health training and perform the inspection procedures are strictly
5. Creating a separate protection equipment and machinery, and emergency stopping devices, etc., as a means of protection for officers.
6. Running the system of rewards and punishment, forcing the work to comply with the standard procedures of work
7. Improve operating procedures and equipment cutting blades eliminate problems that hampered the copper sheet.
8. Tools exploiters forklift flat base sheet.

E. Hit
Case Title: Deaths due to hit hanger tool automatically when the PCB with nickel melapisis service officer male, 25 years of work tasks on an inspection tour in BGA PCB production line in April in time X about 8 am Area scene in the automatic production line equipment or objects accident causing an automatic machine hanger.
The sequence of events in one day about 8 o'clock, supervisors A and B working together on an inspection tour at the point p [BGA PCB coating roduksi with nickel. Worker B gets a phone call that went to the office in front of the raw material income areas to take the call. Approximately 2 minutes later, he returned to the area earlier in the production line and see the inspector A has been lying facedown on the floor near the water washing bath area, his head bleeding, his head facing down and his feet were on the floor next to the security network, covered the back of a safety net. After that he immediately sent to the hospital to get help, but can not be saved and died.

Stages Causes Description
Common Cause
1. Entering the area of automatic operation without turning off the engine first, this is an unsafe behavior, can be seen the concept of occupational safety and health is not good enough. (behavior that is not secure)
2. Production line has no other supervisors, and not equipped with recording equipment. (unsafe environment)

Detailed Causes
1. Lack the concept of job safety and health enough so as to bring himself in a dangerous area. (unsafe behavior).
2. The Company does not install an alarm warning of abnormal conditions, in order to prevent people who are not interested in entering the operations area. (Unsafe environment)

Main Causes
1. The Company does not force the workers to obey the standard procedures of work. (behavior that is not secure)
2. The Company has no knowledge of the importance of safety knowledge of the importance of occupational safety and health and adequate training. (environmental and unsafe behavior)

1. Job training required occupational health and safety and includes examples of this case as subject matter, increasing knowledge of work safety and health will work to prevent the recurrence of similar accidents
2. Establish safety rules and appropriate health and escaped censorship by the relevant agencies feasibility, and then announced and implemented in a mandatory
3. Part of occupational safety and health training and perform the inspection procedures are strictly


A. Conclusion
The cases of accidents, probably caused by an unsafe environment or unsafe behavior. Both business owners and work together to actualize the job safety and health, work all the time to report on the causes of unsafe work environment for business owners, business owners responsible for environmental improvement, correcting the behavior of insecure workers. This concept depends on the education and training of occupational safety and health in the long term, to form the safety culture and health, improving working conditions completely, become good corporate figures, so that they can help each other create jobs, ensure smooth production, achieving zero accident.

B. Advice
Gratitude to the lecturers health courses that have been given the task of this paper to me. In the preparation of this paper the author realized that there are still many things that were not clear whether it dlaam collecting material and in the writing of this paper. Therefore, authors are expected ktitikan, input / suggestions from all parties who are building for the completeness of this paper. Thanks

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The Importance Of Reading For Teens Muslim

Joy of Reading Youth Print

Reading is the need of every human being to increase and the liver and Wasilah as a means to gain knowledge. So, reading is one of the largest window for the entry of a knowledge of themselves my friends. Imam al-Shafi'I had delivered one stanza in his poem "learn! No one born in a state of knowledge, people who have the knowledge is not the same as those that eliminate ignorance itself, including the self-friends as a teenager. My friends were born from the womb of a mother with no knowledge at all equipped. My friends were packed hearing, sight, silly.

Imam al-Jarnuji quoting the opinion which confirms that success in learning is very dependent on the persistence of three people: his own friends, teachers and parents. Parents have a role to make a character of their children especially when I was little. Parents are the first teachers for every person born into the world. That is, whatever is done by the parent will always be followed by their children. Thus, parents who have a strong role to change the character of their children into good or bad, a teenager who specializes reading or lazy to read, and so forth.
Friends as teenagers also have the opportunity to determine the character himself. Relatively young age was able to determine their own choices, including determining itself as an active and avid reader or another. Some of the teens have already started thinking his future, has the desire, and also has a sense of fear of losing something he wanted. A teenager who has the desire and aspiration to be a scientist for example, wishes and aspirations must be driven by the excitement of science. Thus, among the key form the teenager who liked to read is how these teenagers INTA on knowledge.
The teacher in the success of learning activities was no doubt. The main task of a teacher in addition to carrying out learning, also provide guidance and direction to his students. Teachers should always give directions how her students become people who love to read. People who like reading will multiply his knowledge too.
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Conversion To Muscular Endurance

No matter how intensive or comprehensive it is, strength training cannot result in adequate adaptation and have a positive influence in every sport or event unless the specific physiological needs of the given sport are addressed. Most training specialists might agree with this statement, but in reality strength training programs for sport and events in which endurance is either dominant or an important component are still inadequate. Weight lifting and bodybuilding training methods still unduly influence these programs. Many researchers and strength training specialists still consider 15 to 20 repetitions to be an effective way to train M-E. Such a training regimen is grossly inadequate for sports such as mid – and long – distance swimming, rowing, canoeing, boxing, wrestling, cross – country skiing, speed skating and triathlon.

If a low – repetition strength training program with sub maximum or maximum loads is employed, the energy supply, recovery and physiological functioning of the organs and the neuromuscular system adapt to such loading. All the physiological parameters of such a program differ fundamentally from those required for effective physiological behavior of athletes involved in endurance – dominant sports. Thus, it would results in strength increments but would inhibit the endurance component of athletes’ adaptation for such sports.
A strength training program for endurance – dominant sports requires a load closely matching the resistance that must be overcome while competing, relatively low muscle tension and a high number of repetitions that approach the duration of the event. This trains athletes to cope with the fatigue specific to the sport and utilize simultaneous stimuli for both specific strength and endurance. Adaptation to such training will be very similar to the physiological requirements of competition. Fortunately, the neuromuscular system is capable of adapting to any type of training. It will, however adapt to whatever it is exposed to.
The importance of MxS for endurance – dominant sports increases in proportion to external resistance. For instance, 400 – meter swimmers swim with a higher velocity than 800 – to 1.500 – meter swimmers. To create the higher velocity, 400 meter simmers have to pull against the water resistance with greater force than 1.500 – meter athletes. Consequently MxS is more important for 400 – meter than for 1.500 – meter swimmers. In both cases, MxS must be improved from year to year if athletes except to cover the distance faster. Such improvement is possible only if swimmers improve their aerobic endurance and increase the force used to pull against the water resistance. Only this increased force will push the body through the water faster.
M – E is best increased through a strength training program that emphasizes a high number of repetitions. The selected exercises and the number of repetitions have to result in the desired adaption to the physiological requirements of the sports or event. If an adequate method is not applied during the conversion of MxS to M – E, positive transfer from one type of training to a different physiological requirement cannot be expected. In other words, if a body building or weight – lifting methodology with 20 repetitions is applied, improvement cannot be expected in a sport where 200 non stop strokes are performed during a race.
For endurance sports, aerobic endurance and M – E have to be trained at the same time. This can be done either by training each f them on separate days or by combining them in the same training session. In the latter case, M – E should be performed at the end of the session, since the specific endurance work includes technical training. Fatigue can limit combined work – outs and if the total work per day has to be decreased, M – E is normally reduced. Athletes with proper technique and aerobic endurance will find training M – E separately is more beneficial.
The strength – endurance axis refers to four types of combinations between the two abilities: power – endurance (P – E) and M – E short, medium and long. Each strength combination is required for certain sports, so the training methods for each are presented separately.

Sports like sprints in track and field, swimming and wrestling and positions like running back or pitcher require a high degree of power applied several times repetitively. Sprinting, including that in all team sports requiring explosive running (football, baseball, ice hockey, rugby and Australian football), is often misjudged. When sprinters cover the classical 100 meters in 10 to 12 second, they have trained to perform powerful leg actions throughout the entire race, not just at the start and for the following 6 to 8 strides. In a 100 – meter race, athletes take 48 to 54 strides, depending on stride length; thus each leg makes 24 to 27 contacts with the ground. In each ground contact, the force applied is approximately two times body weight.
Consequently, athletes who compete in these sports need to perform powerful actions over and over. In football, rugby and Australian football, athletes are often required to repeat a strenuous activity after only a few seconds of game interruption. To do this successfully these athletes need a high power output the ability to repeat it 20 to 30 times. This constitutes power – endurance (P – E). Athletes with a high level of P – E will have the capacity to avoid a decrease in stride frequency and velocity at the end of a race or a longer sprint.

Program Design
P – E is the determinant abilities in several sports and MxS is a determinant factor in both abilities. This section describes the training methodology for developing muscle endurance in an explosive manner, or P – E.
P – E requires 50 to 70 percent of MxS repeated rhythmically and explosively. Such a load requires dynamic repetition executed explosively 20 to 30 times nonstop. Such an important training requirement can be achieved progressively, starting with a lower number of repetitions (8 to 15) and increasing over 4 to 6 weeks, the duration of the conversion phase for such sports.
Early in the conversion phase, the FT muscle fibers were trained to instantaneously display the highest possible level of power. Now, for P – E purposes, the FT fibers are trained to resist the fatigue induced by performing many repetitions dynamically. Training is now aimed at developing the endurance component of speed, which is accomplished by progressively in creasing the number of repetitions and sets. This requires athletes to exert maximum willpower to overcome fatigue and to reach optimum mental concentration before each set is performed.
To perform a high number of sets for each primer mover, the number of exercises must be as possible (two to three). At the same time, each repetition in a set of 20 to 30 repetitions has to be performed explosively and the RI to be 5 to 7 minutes long.
During this type of work, athletes will experience a high level of lactic acid buildup. Unless this buildup is disposed of, it will impair the ability to repeat quality work. Thus, sufficient time must be allowed for removal of at least 50 percent of the total lactic acid before the next set is performed. Normally, it takes 15 to 25 minutes to remove 50 percent of the lactic acid accumulation. Since the muscle groups involved in training are being constantly alternated, by the time the same exercise is repeated, removal will take at least 20 minutes.
Speed of performance must be dynamic and explosive. Unless this rule is strictly observed, the training will be body building rather than P; the out come will be hypertrophy rather than P – E. It will take a few weeks before athletes should stop when they become incapable of performing a repetition of a set dynamically because P – E is listed in table 11.1. Figure 11.1 shows a sample 4 – week training program for a tennis player.
Table 11.1 Suggested Training Parameters for P – E
Training parameters Work
Load 50 – 70 percent
Number of exercises 2 – 3
Number of repetitions per set 15 – 30
Number of sets per session 2 – 4
Rest – interval 5 – 7 minutes
Speed of execution Very dynamic
Frequency per week 2 – 3

No Exercise Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
1 Jumping half squats 50/15 2 50/20 2 50/20 2 60/25 3
2 Medicine ball side (right and left) throws 3 x 25 3 x 30 3 x 25 4 x 30
3 Medicine ball overhead forward throws 3 x 25 3 x 30 3 x 25 4 x 30
4 Reactive jumps 2 x 15 3 x 15 2 x 15 3 x 20

Loading pattern Medium High Medium High

Figure 11.1 Four – week P – E training for an international – class tennis player RI = 5 minutes

Muscular Endurance OF Short Duration Method
In the world sports, there are several events with duration between 30 seconds and 2 minutes, such as in track and field, swimming, canoeing, speed skating and skiing. There are also sports in which intense activity of this duration is constantly required during a game or match, as in ice hockey, soccer, rugby, basketball, boxing, wrestling and the martial arts. During such intense activity, athletes build up a high level of lactic acid, often more than 12 to 15 mill moles per liter, which shows that the lactic acid, often more system is either dominant or an important component in the overall performance of the sport or event. Most of these sports require very strong anaerobic power as well as very good aerobic endurance.
Strength training must complement overall physiological demands. One of the key objectives for endurance sports is to train athletes to tolerate fatigue, so strength training should have the same goal. As the competitive phase approaches, so strength training must be designed so that it challenges athletes’ ability to tolerate a high buildup of lactic acid.
The specifics of M – ES are similar to the intensive internal training method used in circuit training (CT) where an oxygen debt is developed during the RI, which is typical for activities where the anaerobic energy system prevails. After 60 to 90 seconds of such activity, the heart rate can be as high as 180 to 200 beats per minute and blood lactic acid concentration between 12 and 15 mill moles per liter, or even higher. The energy sources for M – ES are blood and muscle glucose and in particular, the glycogen stored in the liver.
The structure of M – ES can follow the format of CT, in which the repetitions are performed rhythmically and at a fast pace. The load is not very high, 50 to 60 percent, but is performed at a high intensity, at or close to the rate in competition and thus the lowest number of exercises (three to six) should be selected.
The number of repetitions can be set precisely, but as in interval training, it is more appropriate to decide the duration of each set and the speed of performance (30 to 60 seconds). If the number of exercises is low, there to six sets or circuits can be performed. The speed of performance and the duration and number of sets have to be increased progressively over time from a lower level to that suggested in figure 11.2. To train athletes to tolerate lactic acid buildup, the RI must be short (60 to 90 second). Table 11.2
Table 11.2 Suggested Training Parameters for M – ES
Training parameters Work
Load 50 – 60 percent
Number of exercises 3 – 6
Duration of activity 30 – 60 seconds
Number of sets per session 3 – 6
Rest interval 60 – 90 second
Speed of execution Medium to fast
Frequency per week

No Exercise Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6
1 Bent – over arm pulls; load 50 % 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 second 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 seconds 3 x 45 seconds
2 Abdominal V – sits (reps) 2 x 20 2 x 25 2 x 30 2 x 25 2 x 30 2 x 35
3 Lay on back, arms above head, hold; medicine ball forward throws 1 x 25 2 x 25 2 x 30 2 x 25 2 x 30 2 x 30
4 Leg extensions; load 50% 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 seconds 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 seconds 2 x 45 seconds
5 Cable elbow extensions; load 60% 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 seconds 2 x 30 seconds 2 x 45 seconds 2 x 45 seconds

Loading pattern Low Medium High Low Medium High

Figure 11.2 Six – week training program for M – ES training. Figure 11.2 is a sample 6 – week program for a national class 100 meter fly swimmer.

Muscular Endurance of Medium and Long Duration Method
The development of M – E is one of the main factors in improving performance for all sports where performance time is greater than 2 minutes. A specific strength training program has to relate to the non stop duration of activity for sports where aerobic endurance is either dominant or an important component of the final performance.
M – E training is of major benefit for boxing wrestling, rowing, swimming (400 to 1.500 meters), kayaking/canoeing (1.000 to 10.000 meters), road cycling, cross – country skiing, biathlon and triathlon. The incorporation of M l- E of medium duration during the preparatory phase is also beneficial for some team sports, especially rugby, ice hockey, basketball, soccer and Australian football.
M – E training can be performed as CT following the principle of interval training of long duration. This training method can also be called “extensive interval training”, because the tern extensive implies a high – volume, long duration type of activity. The main objective of training for M – E is to increase the ability to cope with fatigue. Athletes improve anaerobic and aerobic endurance, since M – E training employs a high number of repetitions, often more than 100. In the early par of a nonstop set with many repetitions, energy is provided by the anaerobic system. This produces a buildup of lactic acid that creates physiological and psychological problems for athletes as they attempt to continue the activity. As these challenges are over come and athletes continue to work, energy is supplied by the aerobic system. Repetitive M – E training results in specific adaptations that improve cardiovascular regulation and aerobic metabolism.
Physiological adaptations promote better oxygen and energy supply and increase the removal of metabolic wastes. Repetitive M – E training increases glycogen stores in both muscles and liver. Thus, the specific benefit of M – E training is an overall increase in physiological efficiency.
Because M – E employs such a relatively low load (around 30 to 50 percent), the muscles improve their long – term contracting capability without any evident increase in muscle fiber diameter. Only a certain number of motor units are active at one time; the others are at rest and are activated only when and where the contracting fibers become fatigued. Improvement of MxS during that phase is also beneficial for sports where M – E represents an important training method. If the diameter of an individual muscle fiber has increased as a result of MxS, a smaller number of motor units are needed to perform an M – E training task.
This type of strength reserve is critical and increases the muscle’s capacity to produce work more effectively since fewer fibers are involved to overcome the resistance. Thus, MxS should not be minimized. On the contrary, it should within limits, be used for all the sports mentioned or sports that require less than 30 percent of MxS to perform the activity, further increments of MxS have negligible, if any benefit (Hartmann & Tunnemann, 1988).
M – E medium and M – E long training have similar physiological bases. M – E medium (M – EM) is, however suggested for sports where the duration of competition is between 2 and 10 minutes, whereas M – E long (M – EL) is suggested for sports where the duration is 10 minutes or longer. This distinction is necessary because M – EM has a stronger anaerobic component, whereas M – EL is clearly aerobic. The program designs for each type of M – E will be described separately since the load, duration of a set and speed of execution are clearly different.

Program Design for Muscular Endurance of Medium Duration
The M – EM training program can be designed either as CT or as interval training. The first option is suggested for sports where it is necessary to train more muscle groups (wrestling, boxing) whereas the seconds is advisable for sports where one limb prevails (speed skating, canoeing). An example will be presented for each option.
The load for M – EM is 40 to 50 percent (table 11.3) performed progressively over a longer durations. As show in table 11.4 and 11.5 the duration and number of repetitions are increased progressively over a longer period. The duration of the conversion phase for M – E must be 8 to 10 weeks. This length of time is necessary for physiological adaptation to such high training. Throughout the M – EM phase, the load, number of exercises, rest interval and speed of execution remain constant. The number of repetitions, however, increases every second week (table 11.4).
As shown in table 11.3, the rest interval between sets is short, so athletes have insufficient time to recover adequately. However, the program considers the physiological characteristics of the sports employing M – EM and is designed precisely to expose athletes to high levels of fatigue constantly so they learn to cope with the pain and exhaustion of competitions.

Table 11.3 Training Parameters for M – EM
Training parameters Work
Load 40 – 50 percent
Number of exercises 4 – 8
Number of sets per session 2 – 4
Rest interval between sets 2 minutes
Rest interval between circuits 5 minutes
Speed of execution Medium
Frequency per week 2 – 3

Table 11.4 Hypothetical CT for a Wrestler
Number of weeks
Exercise 2 2 2 2
Half squats 30 40 50 60
Arm curls 30 40 50 60
Leg curls 30 40 50 60
Bench presses 30 40 50 60
V – sits 15 20 25 30
Dead lifts 15 18 20 25

Table 11.4 shows a difference in number of reps between the first four exercises and the last two. The latter exercises are considered a lower priority. The ability to perform more repetitions of this exercise requires a solid training background of several years. The load for a dead lift must be lower (30 to 40 percent) and used carefully with beginners (long – term progression).
A CT designed for either M – EM or M – EL can be use a barbell or any other piece of equipment. The advantage of using a barbell is that different limbs can be exercised without stopping to rest, as required in the circuit shown in table 11.5.
The circuit in table 11.5 includes eight exercises performed as follows. Place a barbell of 40 percent of MxS on the shoulders and perform 50 half squats. After completing the last repetition, sit on a bench and perform 40 arm curls. Then lie on the bench and do 50 bench presses. Quickly place the barbell back on the shoulders and perform 50 half squats. Follow this with 50 vertical rowing actions. Again, quickly place the barbell back on the shoulders and perform 60 toe raises followed by 50 dead lifts. Now place the barbell on the floor and perform 50 V – sits for the abdominal muscles. The total number of repetitions performed in our hypothetical circuit is 400.
The advantage of this method is that as training alternates different muscles groups, the cardio respiratory system in involved throughout the circuit. This develops M – E and aerobic endurance, the two crucial abilities for any of the sports discussed in this chapter.
Table 11.5 Example of an M – EM for a Rower
Number of weeks
Exercise 3 – 4 3 3 2
Half squat Take a load of 30 – 50 percent and progressively aim to perform 50 – 60 reps nonstop per exercise Perform two exercises nonstop or 100 reps together, for instance, 50 half squats followed by 50 arm curls. Pair the remaining six exercises Perform four exercises nonstop, or 200 repetitions. After a rest interval, repeat the other four exercises in the same manner Perform all exercises; eight exercises x 50 repetitions = 400 repetitions nonstop
Arm curls
Bench presses
Half squats
Seated rows
Toe raises
Dead raises
V – sits
Rest interval between exercises 1 minute 1 – 2 minutes between each groups of two 2 minutes between each group of four -
Rest interval between circuits - - - 4 – 5 minutes
A similar program can be developed for 400 – to 1.500 – meter swimming, middle – distance events in speed skating, kayaking/canoeing and so on.
To further clarify the information table 11.5:
The number of repetitions is progressively increased to reach 40 to 60 or even higher; 2 o 4 weeks may be needed to accomplish this.
The number of exercises may vary depending on the needs of the sport.
The same exercises can be repeated twice in the same circuit to emphasize the importance of that group of muscles in a given sport (half squats in our example).
The number of exercises may not be the same for every limb. This decision should be based on the strength and weaknesses of the athletes involved.
Observe a steady speed throughout the circuit; it will be easier on the cardio respiratory system.
Set up all the equipment needed before training, so the least amount of time is wasted changing from one exercises to another.
Perform two exercises nonstop in the second phase, four exercises in the third phase and all of them in the last phase.
It may take 6 to 8 minutes or longer to perform an eight – exercises circuit nonstop, depending on the classification of the athlete involved. An even longer circuit can be designed for better improvement of M – EL.
Since the physiological demand of M – E and M – EL are severe, this method should be applied only to athletes with a strong background in both strength and endurance training (national – class athletes and higher). For a less demanding circuit (for juniors) include only four to six exercises.
It is best to use an even number of exercises because of the way they are performed – two, then four then all together nonstop.
As athletes adapt to performing the total number of exercises nonstop during the last phase, the coach can be use a stopwatch to monitor improvement. As a result of adaptation, the time of performance may decrease continuously.

This type of M – EM training should not be used for purpose or for comparing the achievements of two or more athletes. Since anthropometrics (size or length of limbs) differ from athlete to athlete, such a comparison would be unfair, especially for all athletes.

Program Design for Muscular Endurance of Long Duration
Sports of longer duration require a different kind of physiological training. In most of these sports, athletes apply force against a given resistance, for example: water in swimming, rowing and canoeing; the pedals in cycling (body weight applied as strength, especially uphill); ice in speed skating; or snow and various terrains in cross – country skiing and biathlon.
The dominant energy system in these sports is aerobic endurance. Since improved performance is expected to come from increments in aerobic power, strength training must be designed to enhance this. To increase M – EL, there fore, the key training ingredient is a high number of repetitions performed nonstop. The other training parameters remain constant, as indicated in table 11.6.
Since one of the training goals of M – EL is to cope with fatigue; the RI does not allow full recovery. Only a very shorts rest is afforded as athletes change stations, usually 2 to 5 seconds.
Table 11.7 exemplifies a typical training program for M – EL for sports such as triathlon, marathon, kayaking/canoeing (10.000 meters and marathon), and long – distance swimming, road cycling and cross – country skiing. Note that the work is expressed in minutes rather than number of repetitions to make it easier to monitor the many minutes of steady work.
The first four exercises can be performed with a Universal gym or any similar training machine. The last two exercises must be performed using rubber cords, often called elastic cords, which are available in many sporting goods stores. Since this particular program is for long – distance kayaking or canoeing, the elastic cords must be anchored before training so that arm pulls or elbow extensions, typical motions for these two sports, can be performed from a seated position.

Table 11.6 Suggested Training Parameters for M – EL
Training parameters Work
Load 30 – 40 percent
Number of exercises 4 – 6
Number of repetitions per set 2 – 4
Rest – interval See table 11.5
Speed of execution Medium
Frequency per week 2 – 3
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